After the war, he entered the Ohio Wesleyan University and received a Bachelor of Arts in 1873 and a Master of Arts in 1892. He also received the Phi Beta Kappa key. He graduated from Harvard Divinity School (1874) and worked as the owner of a bookstore. He entered Jefferson Medical College in 1885 and graduated in 1888. He then opened an Ophthalmology office in Philadelphia. During that time he invented the cemented bifocal lens.
After twenty years of practice, he moved to Ithaca, New York and three years later to Atlantic City.
A collection of papers about his life are held at the National Library of Medicine in Bethesda, Maryland.
- Students' Medical Dictionary
- A Pocket medical dictionary (1890)
- Anomalies and Curiosities of Medicine (with Walter Lytle Pyle) (1896)
- A book of poems (1897)
- Biographic Clinics (1903)-Volume I – The Origin of Ill Health of De Quincey, Carlyle, Darwin, Huxley and Browning
- Biographic Clinics (1904)-Volume II – The Origin of Ill Health of George Eliot, George Henry Lewes, Wagner, Parkman, Jane Welch Carlyle, Spencer, Whittier, Margaret Fuller Ossoli, and Nietzsche
- Biographic Clinics (1904)-Volume III – Influence of Visual Function Upon Health
- Concerning Lafcadio Hearn (with Laura Stedman) (1908)
- Righthandedness and lefthandedness (1908)
- The Practitioner's Medical Dictionary (with R J E Scott) (1910)
- The Infinite Presence (1910)
- Groen, F. K. (April 1998). "Three who made an association: I. Sir William Osler, 1849–1919. II. George Milbry Gould, 1848–1922. III. Margaret Ridley Charlton, 1858–1931 and the founding of the Medical Library Association, Philadelphia, 1898". Bulletin of the Medical Library Association. 86 (2): 183–91. PMC 226350. PMID 9578937.
- Key, J. D. (January 1976). "The Medical Library Association commemorative medal, 1898–1976". Bulletin of the Medical Library Association. 64 (1): 45–7. PMC 198977. PMID 1247710.
- "George Milbry Gould Papers 1858-1932". National Library of Medicine.