George Hyde (gun designer)

George J. Hyde Sr. (born Heide; January 4, 1888 – December 1963) was a German-born American machinist, gunsmith and gun designer best known for his submachine guns. He was born in Apfingen, Germany. Already a skilled machinist, he immigrated to the United States in 1927. His family followed the next year.

George Hyde
Born(1888-01-04)January 4, 1888
DiedDecember 1963 (age 75)
Brooklyn, New York, United States
OccupationMachinist, gunsmith and gun designer
Known forDesigning the M3 grease gun, designing the FP-45 Liberator pistol

Before 1935 George J. Hyde was a machinist and shop foreman at Griffin & Howe.[1] He quit Griffin & Howe and went on to become the co-owner of Leonard & Hyde in New York. He partnered with Samuel A. "Harry" Leonard, an expert shotgun and rifle stock maker, who had trained at James Purdey & Sons of London. Hyde also did contract gunsmithing work for Roberts and Kimball in Woburn, Massachusetts. (The latter was an early semi-custom maker of rifles chambered in .257 Roberts.)

Hyde's gun designsEdit

An M3 Grease Gun

Hyde was the chief gun designer for the Inland Division of General Motors (GM) during World War II. He also did gun design work for Bendix Aviation Corporation. Among others, he was the designer or co-designer of these guns:

  • The Hyde Model 33, a prototype submachine gun.[2]
  • The Hyde Model 35, a prototype submachine gun.[2] A patent was issued to Hyde for this model on August 4, 1936.
  • The M2 Hyde submachine gun.[3]
  • The M3 grease gun submachine gun.[4][5] About 700,000 were produced at a unit cost of around $20 each.
  • The FP-45 Liberator pistol.[6][7][8] About 1,000,000 were produced at a unit cost of $2.10 each.
  • The Bendix Hyde carbine.[9] (A prototype he designed for Bendix Aviation Corporation that never went into production.)[10]

Personal lifeEdit

Hyde was married in Germany about 1917, to German-born Margaretta ("Greta") Levy (1895–1985). Their first child was George J. Hyde Jr., born 9 March 1918 in Germany. He died in 1999 in Florida. They also had a daughter, Giselle, born about 1924 in Germany.

George Sr. died in Brooklyn New York in December 1963.


  1. ^
  2. ^ a b The World's Submachine Guns, Volume 1, by Thomas B. Nelson, Pages 70-72.
  3. ^ Canfield, Bruce N. American Rifleman (August 2008) p. 52
  4. ^ Iannamico, Frank, The U.S. M3-3A1 Submachine Gun, Moose Lake Publishing, ISBN 0-9701954-4-3, ISBN 978-0-9701954-4-9 (1999)
  5. ^,-mi)-m3-submachine-gun.aspx
  6. ^ Bruce N. Canfield "Desperate Times: The Liberator Pistol" American Rifleman August 2012 pp.48-51&83-84
  7. ^
  8. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2012-12-08. Retrieved 2012-07-12.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link) The Liberator Pistol, by Ralph Hagan
  9. ^
  10. ^