This article needs additional citations for verification. (November 2010)
Halloween, a contraction of "All Hallows' Eve", is a celebration observed on October 31, the day before the feast of All Hallows', also known as Hallowmas or All Saint's Day. The celebrations and observances of this day occur primarily in regions of the Western world, albeit some traditions vary significantly between geographical areas.
Halloween, also spelled as Hallowe'en or Allhallowe'en, is a contraction of All Hallows' Eve, the eve of vigil before the Western Christian feast of All Hallows (or All Saints) which is observed on November 1. This day begins the triduum of Hallowtide, which culminates with All Souls' Day. In the Middle Ages, many Christians held a folk belief that All Hallows' Eve was the "night where the veil between the material world and the afterlife was at its most transparent".
Scottish emigration, primarily to Canada before 1870 and to the United States thereafter, brought the Scottish version of the holiday to each country. The earliest known reference to ritual begging on Halloween in English speaking North America occurs in 1911 when a newspaper in Kingston, Ontario reported that it was normal for the smaller children to go street "guising" on Halloween between 6 and 7 p.m., visiting shops, and neighbours to be rewarded with nuts and candies for their rhymes and songs. Canadians spend more on candy at Halloween than at any time apart from Christmas. Halloween is also a time for charitable contributions. Until 2006 when UNICEF moved to an online donation system, collecting small change was very much a part of Canadian trick-or-treating. Quebec offers themed tours of parts of the old city and historic cemeteries in the area. In 2014 the hamlet of Arviat, Nunavut moved their Halloween festivities to the community hall, cancelling the practice of door-to-door "trick or treating", due to the risk of roaming polar bears. In British Columbia it is a tradition to set off fireworks at Halloween.
In the United States, Halloween did not become a holiday until the 19th century. The transatlantic migration of nearly two million Irish following the Great Irish Famine (1845–1849) brought the holiday to the United States.
American librarian and author Ruth Edna Kelley wrote the first book length history of the holiday in the U.S., The Book of Hallowe'en (1919), and references souling in the chapter "Hallowe'en in America": "All Hallowe'en customs in the United States are borrowed directly or adapted from those of other countries. The taste in Hallowe'en festivities now is to study old traditions, and hold a Scotch party, using Robert Burns's poem Halloween as a guide; or to go a-souling as the English used. In short, no custom that was once honored at Hallowe'en is out of fashion now." The main event for children of modern Halloween in the United States and Canada is trick-or-treating, in which children, teenagers, (sometimes) young adults, and parents (accompanying their children) disguise themselves in costumes and go door-to-door in their neighborhoods, ringing each doorbell and yelling "Trick or treat!" to solicit a gift of candy or similar items. Teenagers and adults will more frequently attend Halloween-themed costume parties typically hosted by friends or themed events at nightclubs either on Halloween itself or a weekend close to the holiday.
At the turn of the 20th century, Halloween had turned into a night of vandalism, with destruction of property and cruelty to animals and people. Around 1912, the Boy Scouts, Boys Clubs, and other neighborhood organizations came together to encourage a safe celebration that would end the destruction that had become so common on this night.
The commercialization of Halloween in the United States did not start until the 20th century, beginning perhaps with Halloween postcards (featuring hundreds of designs), which were most popular between 1905 and 1915. Dennison Manufacturing Company (which published its first Halloween catalog in 1909) and the Beistle Company were pioneers in commercially made Halloween decorations, particularly die-cut paper items. German manufacturers specialised in Halloween figurines that were exported to the United States in the period between the two World Wars.
Halloween is now the United States' second most popular holiday (after Christmas) for decorating; the sale of candy and costumes is also extremely common during the holiday, which is marketed to children and adults alike. The National Confectioners Association (NCA) reported in 2005 that 80% of American adults planned to give out candy to trick-or-treaters. The NCA reported in 2005 that 93% of children planned to go trick-or-treating. According to the National Retail Federation, the most popular Halloween costume themes for adults are, in order: witch, pirate, vampire, cat, and clown.[when?] Each year, popular costumes are dictated by various current events and pop culture icons. On many college campuses, Halloween is a major celebration, with the Friday and Saturday nearest 31 October hosting many costume parties. Other popular activities are watching horror movies and visiting haunted houses. Total spending on Halloween is estimated to be $8.4 billion.
Many theme parks stage Halloween events annually, such as Halloween Horror Nights at Universal Studios Hollywood and Universal Orlando, Mickey's Halloween Party and Mickey's Not-So-Scary Halloween Party at Disneyland Resort and Magic Kingdom respectively, and Knott's Scary Farm at Knott's Berry Farm. One of the more notable parades is New York's Village Halloween Parade. Each year approximately 50,000 costumed marchers parade up Sixth Avenue. Salem, Massachusetts, site of the Salem witch trials, celebrates Halloween throughout the month of October with tours, plays, concerts, and other activities. A number of venues in New York's lower Hudson Valley host various events to showcase a connection with Washington Irving's Legend of Sleepy Hollow. Van Cortlandt Manor stages the "Great Jack o' Lantern Blaze" featuring thousands of lighted carved pumpkins.
Some locales have had to modify their celebrations due to disruptive behavior on the part of young adults. Madison, Wisconsin hosts an annual Halloween celebration. In 2002, due to the large crowds in the State Street area, a riot broke out, necessitating the use of mounted police and tear gas to disperse the crowds. Likewise, Chapel Hill, site of the University of North Carolina, has a downtown street party which in 2007 drew a crowd estimated at 80,000 on downtown Franklin Street, in a town with a population of just 54,000. In 2008, in an effort to curb the influx of out-of-towners, mayor Kevin Foy put measures in place to make commuting downtown more difficult on Halloween. In 2014, large crowds of college students rioted at the Keene, New Hampshire Pumpkin Fest, whereupon the City Council voted not to grant a permit for the following year's festival, and organizers moved the event to Laconia for 2015.
In the Dominican Republic it has been gaining popularity, largely due to many Dominicans living in the United States and then bringing the custom to the island. In the larger cities of Santiago or Santo Domingo it has become more common to see children trick-or-treating, but in smaller towns and villages it is almost entirely absent, partly due to religious opposition. Tourist areas such as Sosua and Punta Cana feature many venues with Halloween celebrations, predominantly geared towards adults.
Mexico (Día de los Muertos)Edit
Observed in Mexico and Mexican communities abroad, Day of the Dead (Spanish: Día de los Muertos) celebrations arose from the syncretism of indigenous Aztec traditions with the Christian Hallowtide of the Spanish colonizers. Flower decorations, altars and candies are part of this holiday season. The holiday is distinct from Halloween in its origins and observances, but the two have become associated because of cross-border connections between Mexico and the United States through popular culture and migration, as the two celebrations occur at the same time of year and may involve similar imagery, such as skeletons. Halloween and Día de Muertos have influenced each other in some areas of the United States and Mexico, with Halloween traditions such as costumes and face-painting becoming increasingly common features of the Mexican festival.
The Chinese celebrate the "Hungry Ghost Festival" in mid-July, when it is customary to float river lanterns to remember those who have died. By contrast, Halloween is often called "All Saints' Festival" (Wànshèngjié, 萬聖節), or (less commonly) "All Saints' Eve" (Wànshèngyè, 萬聖夜) or "Eve of All Saints' Day" (Wànshèngjié Qiányè, 萬聖節前夕), stemming from the term "All Hallows Eve" (hallow referring to the souls of holy saints). Chinese Christian churches hold religious celebrations. Non-religious celebrations are dominated by expatriate Americans or Canadians, but costume parties are also popular for Chinese young adults, especially in large cities. Hong Kong Disneyland and Ocean Park (Halloween Bash) host annual Halloween shows.
Mainland China has been less influenced by Anglo traditions than Hong Kong and Halloween is generally considered "foreign". As Halloween has become more popular globally it has also become more popular in China, however, particularly amongst children attending private or international schools with many foreign teachers from North America.
Traditional "door-to-door" trick or treating is not commonly practiced in Hong Kong due to the vast majority of Hong Kong residents living in high-rise apartment blocks. However, in many buildings catering to expatriates, Halloween parties and limited trick or treating is arranged by the management. Instances of street-level trick or treating in Hong Kong occur in ultra-exclusive gated housing communities such as The Beverly Hills populated by Hong Kong's super-rich and in expatriate areas like Discovery Bay and the Red Hill Peninsula. For the general public, there are events at Tsim Sha Tsui's Avenue of the Stars that try to mimic the celebration. In the Lan Kwai Fong area of Hong Kong, known as a major entertainment district for the international community, a Halloween celebration and parade has taken place for over 20 years, with many people dressing in costume and making their way around the streets to various drinking establishments. Many international schools also celebrate Halloween with costumes, and some put an academic twist on the celebrations such as the "Book-o-ween" celebrations at Hong Kong International School where students dress as favorite literary characters.
Halloween arrived in Japan mainly as a result of American pop culture. As recently as 2009, it was not appreciated and only celebrated by expats. The wearing of elaborate costumes by young adults at night is recently very popular in areas such as Amerikamura in Osaka and Shibuya in Tokyo, where, in October 2012, about 1700 people dressed in costumes to take part in the Halloween Festival. The holiday has become popular with young adults as a costume party and club event. Trick-or-treating for Japanese children has taken hold in some areas. The Yakuza have taken advantage of the festival by hosting parties and giving snacks and sweets to children, a tradition which goes back at least for 20 years.
The period from 31 October through 2 November is a time for remembering dead family members and friends. Many Filipinos travel back to their hometowns for family gatherings of festive remembrance.
Trick-or-treating is gradually replacing the dying tradition of Pangangaluluwâ, a local analogue of the old English custom of souling. People in the provinces still observe Pangangaluluwâ by going in groups to every house and offering a song in exchange for money or food. The participants, usually children, would sing carols about the souls in Purgatory, with the abúloy (alms for the dead) used to pay for Masses for these souls. Along with the requested alms, householders sometimes gave the children suman (rice cakes). During the night, various small items, such as clothing, plants, etc., would "mysteriously" disappear, only to be discovered the next morning in the yard or in the middle of the street. In older times, it was believed that the spirits of ancestors and loved ones visited the living on this night, manifesting their presence by taking an item.
As the observation of Christmas traditions in the Philippines begins as early as September, it is a common sight to see Halloween decorations next to Christmas decorations in urban settings.
Around mid-July Singapore Chinese celebrate "Zhong Yuan Jie / Yu Lan Jie" (Hungry Ghosts Festival), a time when it is believed that the spirits of the dead come back to visit their families. In recent years, Halloween celebrations are becoming more popular, with influence from the west. In 2012, there were over 19 major Halloween celebration events around Singapore. SCAPE's Museum of Horrors held its fourth scare fest in 2014. Universal Studios Singapore hosts "Halloween Horror Nights".
Australia and New ZealandEdit
While not traditionally a part of Australian culture, non-religious celebrations of Halloween modelled on North American festivities are growing increasingly popular in Australia, in spite of seasonal differences and the transition from spring to summer. Criticism stems largely from the fact that Halloween has little relevance to Australian culture. It is also considered, by some Australians, to be an unwanted American influence; as although Halloween does have Celtic/European origins, its increasing popularity in Australia is largely as a result of American pop-culture influence. Supporters of the event claim that the critics fail to see that the event is not entirely American, but rather Celtic and is no different from embracing other cultural traditions such as Saint Patrick's Day.
Halloween historian and author of Halloween: Pagan Festival to Trick or Treat, Mark Oxbrow says while Halloween may have been popularised by depictions of it in US movies and TV shows, it is not a new entry into Australian culture. His research shows Halloween was first celebrated in Australia in Castlemaine, Victoria, in 1858, which was 43 years before Federation. His research shows Halloween traditions were brought to the country by Scottish and Irish miners who settled in Victoria during the Gold Rush.
Due to the opposition to Halloween by some people, there is a growing movement where people are inviting trick-or-treaters to take part by putting a balloon or decoration on their letter box, to indicate that they are welcome to come knocking. In the past decade, the popularity of Halloween in Australia has grown. In 2020, Australia's first magazine dedicated solely to celebrating Halloween in Australia was launched, called Hallozween, and in 2021, sales of costumes, decorations and carving pumpkins soared to an all-time high despite the effect of the global COVID-19 pandemic limiting celebrations.
In New Zealand, as in neighbouring Australia, Halloween is not celebrated to the same extent as in North America, although in recent years the non-religious celebrations have been achieving some popularity especially among young children. Trick-or-treat has become increasingly popular with minors in New Zealand over the years, despite being not a "British or Kiwi event" that purely is only influenced by American globalisation. Critics of Halloween in New Zealand believe that commercialisation of Halloween by the popular store The Warehouse has pushed the popularity of Halloween into an unofficial national holiday.
Over the years, Halloween has become more successful in Europe and has been partially ousting some older customs like the Rübengeistern (English: turnip ghosts, beet spirit), Martinisingen, and others.
Halloween has been introduced in France in the 1990's.
Halloween was not generally observed in Germany prior to the 1990s, but has been increasing in popularity. It has been associated with the influence of United States culture, and "Trick or Treating" (in German, "Süßes sonst gibt's Saures") has been occurring in various German cities, especially in areas such as the Dahlem neighborhood in Berlin, which was part of the American zone during the Cold War. Today, Halloween in Germany brings in 200 million euros a year, through multiple industries. Halloween is celebrated by both children and adults. Adults celebrate at themed costume parties and clubs, while children go trick or treating. Complaints of vandalism associated with Halloween "Tricks" are increasing, particularly from many elderly Germans unfamiliar with "Trick or Treating".
In Greece, Halloween is a working day and was not celebrated much until interest began increasing in the early 2000s. It has continued to increase in popularity as both a commercial and secular celebration; although Carnival is more popular among Greeks, Halloween is now[when?] considered the fourth most profitable festival in the country after Christmas, Easter, and Carnival. Bars, nightclubs, and theme parks also organize Halloween parties. Its increase in popularity has been attributed to the influence of Western culture.
Since it is a working day, Halloween is not celebrated on 31 October unless the date falls on a weekend, in which case it is celebrated during the last weekend before All Hallow's Eve. Trick-or-treating is not widely popular because similar activities are already undertaken during Carnival. The rise in popularity of Halloween in Greece has led to an increase in its popularity throughout nearby countries such as Albania, Bulgaria, North Macedonia, and Cyprus. In the latter, there has been an increase in Greek-Cypriot retailers selling Halloween merchandise every year.
On Halloween night, adults and children dress up as various monsters and creatures, light bonfires, and enjoy fireworks displays; Derry in Northern Ireland is home to the largest organized Halloween celebration on the island, in the form of a street carnival and fireworks display.
Games are often played, such as bobbing for apples, in which apples, peanuts, other nuts and fruits, and some small coins are placed in a basin of water. Everyone takes turns catching as many items possible using only their mouths. Another common game involves the hands-free eating of an apple hung on a string attached to the ceiling. Games of divination are also played at Halloween. Colcannon is traditionally served on Halloween.
31 October is the busiest day of the year for the Emergency Services. Bangers and fireworks are illegal in the Republic of Ireland; however, they are commonly smuggled in from Northern Ireland where they are legal. Bonfires are frequently built around Halloween. Trick-or-treating is popular amongst children on 31 October and Halloween parties and events are commonplace.
In Italy All Saints' Day is a public holiday. On 2 November, Tutti i Morti or All Souls' Day, families remember loved ones who have died. These are still the main holidays. In some Italian tradition, children would awake on the morning of All Saints or All Souls to find small gifts from their deceased ancestors. In Sardinia, Concas de Mortu (Head of the deads), carved pumpkins that look like skulls, with candles inside are displayed. Halloween is, however, gaining in popularity, and involves costume parties for young adults. The traditions to carve pumpkins in a skull figure, lighting candles inside, or to beg for small gifts for the deads e.g. sweets or nuts, also belong to North Italy. In Veneto these carved pumpkins were called lumère (lanterns) or suche dei morti (deads' pumpkins).
Since the fall of Communism in 1989, Halloween has become increasingly popular in Poland. Particularly, it is celebrated among younger people. The influx of Western tourists and expats throughout the 1990s introduced the costume party aspect of Hallowe'en celebrations, particularly in clubs and at private house parties. Door-to-door trick or treating is not common. Pumpkin carving is becoming more evident, following a strong North American version of the tradition.
Romanians observe the Feast of St. Andrew, patron saint of Romania, on 30 November. On St. Andrew's Eve ghosts are said to be about. A number of customs related to divination, in other places connected to Halloween, are associated with this night. However, with the popularity of Dracula in western Europe, around Halloween the Romanian tourist industry promotes trips to locations connected to the historical Vlad Tepeș and the more fanciful Dracula of Bram Stoker. One of the most successful Halloween Parties in Transylvania takes place in Sighișoara, the citadel where Vlad the Impaler was born. This party include magician shows, ballet show and The Ritual Killing of a Living Dead The biggest Halloween party in Transylvania take place at Bran Castle, aka Dracula's Castle from Transylvania.
Both the Catholic and Orthodox Churches in Romania discourage Halloween celebrations, advising their parishioners to focus rather on the "Day of the Dead" on 1 November, when special religious observances are held for the souls of the deceased. Opposition by religious and nationalist groups, including calls to ban costumes and decorations in schools in 2015, have been met with criticism. Halloween parties are popular in bars and nightclubs.
In Russia most Christians are Orthodox, and in the Orthodox Church Halloween is on the Saturday after Pentecost and therefore 4 to 5 months before western Halloween. Celebration of western Halloween began in the 1990s around the downfall of the Soviet regime, when costume and ghoulish parties spread throughout night clubs throughout Russia. Halloween is generally celebrated by younger generations and is not widely celebrated in civic society (e.g. theaters or libraries). In fact, Halloween is among the Western celebrations that the Russian government and politicians—which have grown increasingly anti-Western in the early 2010s—are trying to eliminate from public celebration.
Halloween (Serbian Cyrillic: Ноћ вештица, lit. "Night of Witches") has not been celebrated until recently. Halloween is a work day in Serbia. Nowadays, it is very popular among younger generations. Many schools (mostly elementary schools) in Serbia throw special Halloween parties, full of children and teenagers wearing costumes and masks. Bars, nightclubs and fun parks organise Halloween parties for adults and young adults.
In Spain, celebrations involve eating castanyes (roasted chestnuts), panellets (special almond balls covered in pine nuts), moniatos (roast or baked sweet potato), Ossos de Sant cake and preserved fruit (candied or glazed fruit). Moscatell (Muscat) is drunk from porrons. Around the time of this celebration, it is common for street vendors to sell hot toasted chestnuts wrapped in newspaper. In many places, confectioners often organise raffles of chestnuts and preserved fruit.
The tradition of eating these foods comes from the fact that during All Saints' night, on the eve of All Souls' Day in the Christian tradition, bell ringers would ring bells in commemoration of the dead into the early morning. Friends and relatives would help with this task, and everyone would eat these foods for sustenance.
Other versions of the story state that the Castanyada originates at the end of the 18th century and comes from the old funeral meals, where other foods, such as vegetables and dried fruit were not served. The meal had the symbolic significance of a communion with the souls of the departed: while the chestnuts were roasting, prayers would be said for the person who had just died.
The festival is usually depicted with the figure of a castanyera: an old lady, dressed in peasant's clothing and wearing a headscarf, sitting behind a table, roasting chestnuts for street sale.
In recent years, the Castanyada has become a revetlla of All Saints and is celebrated in the home and community. It is the first of the four main school festivals, alongside Christmas, Carnestoltes and St George's Day, without reference to ritual or commemoration of the dead.
Throughout the period of Allhallowtide, starting with All Hallow's Eve, Swedish families visit churchyards and adorn the graves of their family members with lit candles and wreaths fashioned from pine branches.
Among children, the practice of dressing in costume and collecting candy gained popularity beginning around 2005. The American traditions of Halloween have however been met with skepticism among the older generations, in part due to conflicting with the Swedish traditions on All Hallow's Eve and in part due to their commercialism.
In Switzerland, Halloween, after first becoming popular in 1999, is on the wane, and is most popular with young adults who attend parties. Switzerland already has a "festival overload" and even though Swiss people like to dress up for any occasion, they do prefer a traditional element, such as in the Fasnacht tradition of chasing away winter using noise and masks.
United Kingdom and Crown dependenciesEdit
In the past, on All Souls' Eve families would stay up late, and little "soul cakes" were eaten. At the stroke of midnight, there was solemn silence among households, which had candles burning in every room to guide the souls back to visit their earthly homes and a glass of wine on the table to refresh them. The tradition of giving soul cakes that originated in Great Britain and Ireland was known as souling, often seen as the origin of modern trick or treating in North America, and souling continued in parts of England as late as the 1930s, with children going from door to door singing songs and saying prayers for the dead in return for cakes or money.
Trick or treating and other Halloween celebrations are extremely popular, with shops decorated with witches and pumpkins, and young people attending costume parties.
The name Halloween is first attested in the 16th century as a Scottish shortening of the fuller All-Hallow-Even, that is, the night before All Hallows' Day. Dumfries poet John Mayne's 1780 poem made note of pranks at Halloween "What fearfu' pranks ensue!". Scottish poet Robert Burns was influenced by Mayne's composition, and portrayed some of the customs in his poem Halloween (1785). According to Burns, Halloween is "thought to be a night when witches, devils, and other mischief-making beings are all abroad on their baneful midnight errands".
Among the earliest record of Guising at Halloween in Scotland is in 1895, where masqueraders in disguise carrying lanterns made out of scooped out turnips, visit homes to be rewarded with cakes, fruit and money. If children approached the door of a house, they were given offerings of food. The children's practice of "guising", going from door to door in costumes for food or coins, is a traditional Halloween custom in Scotland. These days children who knock on their neighbours doors have to sing a song or tell stories for a gift of sweets or money.
A traditional Halloween game includes apple "dooking", or "dunking" or (i.e., retrieving one from a bucket of water using only one's mouth), and attempting to eat, while blindfolded, a treacle/jam-coated scone hanging on a piece of string.
Traditional customs and lore include divination practices, ways of trying to predict the future. A traditional Scottish form of divining one's future spouse is to carve an apple in one long strip, then toss the peel over one's shoulder. The peel is believed to land in the shape of the first letter of the future spouse's name.
Isle of ManEdit
Halloween is a popular traditional occasion on the Isle of Man, where it is known as Hop-tu-Naa.
In Saint Helena, Halloween is actively celebrated, largely along the American model, with ghosts, skeletons, devils, vampires, witches and the like. Imitation pumpkins are used instead of real pumpkins because the pumpkin harvesting season in Saint Helena's hemisphere is not near Halloween. Trick-or-treating is widespread. Party venues provide entertainment for adults.
- Arising from Bondage: A History of the Indo-Caribbean People (Ron Ramdin), New York University Press, page 241
- Devros, Isabelle (31 October 2014). "Little monsters play on All Hallow's Eve". The Armidale Express. Retrieved 31 October 2014.
- Rogers, Nicholas (2002). "Festive Rights: Halloween in the British Isles". Halloween: From Pagan Ritual to Party Night. Oxford University Press. pp. 49–77. ISBN 0195146913.
- Mackenzie, Marika. "10 things you didn't know about Halloween in Canada", Canadian Geographic, 31 October 2013 Archived 3 November 2015 at the Wayback Machine
- Québec, Office du tourisme de. "Halloween Activities - Travel to Quebec City, Canada". Official Web Site - Québec City Tourism. Retrieved 1 November 2017.
- Holthaus, Eric. "Canadian Town Cancels Outdoor Halloween Because Polar Bears", Slate, 20 October 2014
- "Polar bears ruining Halloween for some in Canada, report claims". Cbsnews.com. Retrieved 1 November 2017.
- "How firecrackers and fireworks became a Vancouver Halloween tradition". Vancitybuzz.com. 28 October 2014. Retrieved 1 November 2017.
- "The Book of Hallowe'en: Chapter XV: Hallowe'en in America". Sacred-texts.com. Retrieved 21 November 2013.
- Rogers, Nicholas (2002). "Coming Over: Halloween in North America". Halloween: From Pagan Ritual to Party Night. New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 49–77. ISBN 0-19-516896-8.
- "Halloween History". Nyise.org. Archived from the original on 31 October 2014. Retrieved 21 November 2013.
- Anderson, Richard (2000). "Antique Halloween Postcards and E-cards". shaktiweb.com. Retrieved 14 September 2006.
- Dawn Kroma; Lou Kroma. "Beistle: An American Halloween Giant". Spookshows.com. Retrieved 14 September 2006.
- Ledenbach, Mark B. "A Brief History of Halloween Collectibles". halloweencollector.com. Retrieved 14 September 2006.
- "Trick-or-treaters can expect Mom or Dad's favorites in their bags this year". National Confectioners Association. 2005. Archived from the original on 27 August 2006. Retrieved 14 September 2006.
- "Fun Facts: Halloween". National Confectioners Association. 2005. Archived from the original on 12 September 2006. Retrieved 14 September 2006.
- 2006 Halloween Consumer Intentions and Actions Survey. Washington, DC: The National Retail Federation.
- "Halloween Headquarters". National Retail Federation. Retrieved 25 October 2016.
- "Village Halloween Parade". NYCgo.com. Retrieved 1 November 2017.
- "SALEM HALLOWEEN EVENTS FESTIVALS ACTIVITIES". Salemhalloweencity.com. Retrieved 1 November 2017.
- Dawson, Mackensie (4 October 2014). "7 Halloween events you won't want to miss". New York Post. Retrieved 3 November 2018.
- "Halloween revelers erupt in Madison". Milwaukee Journal Sentinel. 4 November 2002. Archived from the original on 22 February 2006. Retrieved 18 December 2007.
- "Chapel Hill to goblins: stay away". The News & Observer. 31 October 2008. Archived from the original on 3 November 2008. Retrieved 31 October 2008.
- "Keene City Council rejects pumpkin fest permit". Concord Monitor. Associated Press. 3 April 2015. Archived from the original on 7 April 2015. Retrieved 3 April 2015.
- Sexton, Adam (24 April 2015). "It's official: Laconia will host this year's pumpkin festival". WMUR-TV. Retrieved 23 September 2015.
- "Why Don't Dominicans Celebrate Halloween?". Kiskeya.life. Retrieved 1 November 2017.
- Cummings, William (30 October 2017). "No, Día de los Muertos isn't 'Mexican Halloween'". USA TODAY. Retrieved 24 October 2019.
- Puga, Kristina (1 November 2017). "What's El Día de los Muertos? It's Not Scary, and It's Not Halloween". NBC News. Retrieved 24 October 2019.
- Wu Ni (30 October 2013). "Halloween gaining popularity but still sees cultural differences". China Daily.
- Boland, Rory (30 October 2009). "Events and Celebrations for Halloween in Hong Kong". About.com. Retrieved 31 October 2009.
- "Lan Kwai Fong Halloween Street Party". Archived from the original on 1 November 2015.
- Ashcraft, Brian (23 October 2017). "Japan's Infamous Halloween Trains". Gizmodo. Retrieved 24 October 2017.
- "Halloween in Japan". UPI.com. 26 October 2012. Retrieved 20 November 2013.
- Richards, Jeff W. (30 October 2014). "How Japan fell in love with Halloween for adults". Market Watch. Dow Jones.
- "Yamaguchi-gumi henchmen make Kobe kids an offer they can't refuse: Halloween candy". The Japan Times. 1 November 2016. Retrieved 2 February 2016.
- Canopio, Camille; Distor, Tessa (29 October 2014). "How do we spell 'Halloween' in the Philippines?". Asian Journal.
- "Halloween in the Philippines – CNN iReport". Ireport.cnn.com. 28 October 2010. Retrieved 20 November 2013.
- National Library Board, Singapore. "Zhong Yuan Jie (Mid-Year Festival)". Infopedia. Archived from the original on 12 February 2014. Retrieved 20 November 2013.
- "What's the big fuss about Halloween?". News.asiaone.com. 1 November 2010. Retrieved 20 November 2013.
- "2012 Singapore Halloween Events And Parties – Singapore Halloween". Halloween.sg. Archived from the original on 18 August 2013. Retrieved 21 November 2013.
- *SCAPE Admin (23 July 2013). "Scare Actors Audition| Museum of Horrors IV: The Twins" (PDF). Scape.com.sg. Retrieved 21 November 2013.
- "Halloween Horror Nights 7". Halloween Horror Nights 7. Retrieved 1 November 2017.
- "Halloween in Australia - Halloween Australia". Halloween Australia. Retrieved 1 November 2017.
- "Should Australians be Hallo-weaned off Halloween celebrations?". news.com.au. 31 October 2009. Archived from the original on 1 November 2009. Retrieved 1 November 2012.
- Browne, Rachel; Seidler, Jonno (1 November 2009). "Hell of a row as kids buy into imported Halloween rituals". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 1 November 2012.
- "Should Australians be Hallo-weaned off Halloween celebrations? (comments)". news.com.au. 31 October 2009. Archived from the original on 30 October 2013. Retrieved 1 November 2012.
- Elissa Griesser. "Halloween shouldn't give us the creeps". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 27 October 2012.
- "Halloween: a festival that polarises Australians". Abc.net.au. 30 October 2015. Retrieved 1 November 2017.
- https://www.heraldsun.com.au/leader/west/halloween-2020-costumes-recipes-makeup-and-social-distancing/news-story/5eaa12c31a149d1ca3c70a98a4559a49[bare URL]
- https://www.dailytelegraph.com.au/lifestyle/smart/top-tips-for-families-to-enjoy-a-healthy-and-safe-halloween/news-story/3847cac3f56b0c17ab7ad6d930138350[bare URL]
- Kiwi Families. "Halloween in NZ". Retrieved 16 October 2014.
- "Halloween". My.christchurchcitylibraries.com. Retrieved 1 November 2017.
- "Halloween trick or treating: How old is too old? Kiwi parents speak". NZ Herald. Retrieved 1 November 2018.
- Halloween in der Steiermark und anderswo, Volkskunde (Münster in Westfalen), Hrsg. Editha Hörandner, LIT Verlag Münster, 2005 ISBN 3825888894. (in German)
- "Das Geschäft mit dem Gruselfest: Aus Halloween wird Hallowahn - Stuttgarter Zeitung". stuttgarter-zeitung.de (in German). Retrieved 31 October 2015.
- Rupert Neate and Nicholas Connolly (31 October 2013), Holiday Backlash: Germans Cringe at Rise of Halloween Der Spiegel
- "Halloween 2007". Derrycity.gov.uk. Archived from the original on 20 March 2008. Retrieved 31 October 2008.
- "An Irish Halloween - Part 1 - World Cultures European". Irishcultureandcustoms.com. Retrieved 1 November 2017.
- de Leary, Kim. "Traditional Halloween Divination Games from Ireland" www.startpage.ie
- "Busy Halloween for emergency services". RTÉ. 1 November 2011. Retrieved 1 November 2011.
- "Gardai warn minors to stay away from fireworks following haul". Kilkenny Advertiser. 30 September 2011. Retrieved 2 October 2011.
- Bray, Allison (2 November 2010). "Council faces €1m clean-up bill after Halloween horror". Irish Independent. Retrieved 2 November 2010.
- "Halloween in Italy - ItaliaRail - Italy Train Ticket and Rail Pass Experts". Italiarail.com. Retrieved 1 November 2017.
- Monia Melis. "Tutte le Halloween della Sardegna". OggiViaggi.it. Archived from the original on 6 November 2013. Retrieved 20 November 2013.
- Gian Luca Casu. "Sardegna Cultura Colore: Il rito de "IS FRACCHERAS" un rito unico che si svolgeva in Sardegna il 2 Novembre nel piccolo paese chiamato Gadoni". Sardegnaculturacolore.blogspot.it. Retrieved 20 November 2013.
- "C/O Comune di Bono – 07011 Bono (SS)". goceano.it. Archived from the original on 31 January 2002. Retrieved 21 November 2013.
- Paglia, Roberto. "Saints and Souls", Best of Sicily Magazine, 2005
- "Quali sono le Halloween italiane?". Focus.it. Retrieved 1 November 2017.
- "Dalle "lumère" alle famose zucche, il Veneto ritrova il suo Halloween". Veneziatoday.it. Retrieved 1 November 2017.
- "St. Andrew's Day in Romania". Traditionsacrosseurope.wordpress.com. 25 November 2008. Retrieved 6 September 2013.
- "Transylvania Live – Awarded Halloween in Transylvania Party, Halloween Short Break, Dracula Short Break, Romania travel". Visit-transylvania.co.uk. Retrieved 20 November 2013.
- "Bran Castle Halloween Party". Bran Castle Party planner. Retrieved 12 February 2020.
- "Bisericiile din Romania s-au unit impotriva sarbatorii de Halloween. Nu putem petrece de "Ziua Mortilor"". Stirileprotv.ro. Retrieved 1 November 2017.
- "Controversa de Halloween in scoli: Asociatia Parinti pentru Ora de Religie se lupta cu dovlecii si vrea sa scoata vrajitoarele din clase". Hotnews.ro. 30 October 2015. Retrieved 1 November 2015.
- "Scrisoarea unui tatic de Vrajitoare, catre parintii care le-au interzis copiilor Halloween-ul: Va temeti de inocenta care va arata asa cum sunteti. Habotnici si razbunatori!". Hotnews.ro. 30 October 2015. Retrieved 1 November 2015.
- "Romania, in linie cu Bulgaria si Rusia. Tarile care se sperie de Halloween si vad in aceasta sarbatoare "o forma de colonizare culturala"". 30 October 2015. Retrieved 1 November 2015.
- "Halloween în România. Unde te poţi distra". Retrieved 1 November 2015.
- Shuster, Simon (31 October 2013). "Russian Region Wages War on Halloween". Time. Retrieved 24 October 2014.
- Bennetts, Marc (30 October 2013). "Nyet on Halloween: Russian church warns of 'dangers'; Siberia bans holiday". Washington Times. Retrieved 24 October 2014.
- "Russia: Activist calls for Halloween ban". BBC News. 23 October 2014. Retrieved 24 October 2014.
- "LA CASTANYADA | P-O Life". anglophone-direct. 24 October 2017. Retrieved 14 October 2018.[verification needed]
- "LA CASTANYADA | P-O Life". anglophone-direct. 24 October 2017. Retrieved 14 October 2018.[verification needed]
- Soler i Amigó, 2001, p. 200.[verification needed]
- Soler i Amigó, 2001, p. 201.[verification needed]
- Vlas, Natalia; Boari, Vasile (2013). Religion and Politics in the 21st Century: Global and Local Reflections. Cambridge Scholars Publishing. ISBN 9781443850766.
- Pihl, Anne (28 October 2016). "Halloween – my first time trick-or-treating in Sweden". Relocate To Sweden. Archived from the original on 8 July 2018.
- "Halloween". isof.se (in Swedish). Swedish Institute for Language and Folklore. 19 October 2020. Archived from the original on 28 February 2021.
- "Interest in Halloween in Switzerland starts to wane". Swissinfo.ch. 31 October 2007. Retrieved 1 November 2012.
- Taylor, Pamela. "Halloween in Switzerland", Le News, 30 October 2014
- Rogers, Nicholas (2002). Halloween: From Pagan Ritual to Party Night. Oxford University Press. pp. 28–30. ISBN 0-19-514691-3.
- Hanc, John. "How Halloween Has Taken Over England", Smithsonian Magazine, 31 October 2014
- "Hallow-e'en". Oxford English Dictionary (Online ed.). Oxford University Press. (Subscription or participating institution membership required.)
- Chambers, Robert (1854). The life and works of Robert Burns, Volume 1. Lippincott, Grambo & co. p. 154.
halloween poem (burns).
- The Penny Cyclopaedia of the Society for the Difussion of Useful Knowledge. Charles Knight. 1833. Retrieved 21 November 2013.
- Frank Leslie's Popular. Frank Leslie's. 1895. Retrieved 21 November 2013.
- "Halloween Traditions". Scotland.org. Retrieved 1 November 2017.
- "Apple dookers make record attempt". BBC News. 2 October 2008. Retrieved 21 November 2013.
- McNeill, F. Marian (1961). The Silver Bough, Vol. 3. Glasgow: William MacLellan. pp. 11–46. ISBN 0-948474-04-1.
- "Why one town in Scotland celebrates Halloween today". The Scotsman. 25 October 2019. Retrieved 22 October 2021.
- "Entertainment & Events" (PDF). St Helena Independent. 30 October 2009. Archived from the original (PDF) on 20 July 2011. Retrieved 30 October 2009.