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The Gambulu, Gambulai,[1] or Gambuli[2] were a tribe of Arameans in ancient Babylonia.[3] They were the most powerful tribe along the eastern border of Babylonia,[4] or in the south toward the border with Elam.[5] It is difficult to pinpoint their exact location.[6] H. W. F. Saggs places them "south of the Diyala river toward the Elamite border."[3]

When Assyrian king Sargon II (722-705) waged war against them in the city of Dur-Athara, 18,430 were deported.[7]

The Gambulu, along with the Puqudu, continued to be politically important as far as the sixth century.[8]


  1. ^ Claude Hermann Walter Johns (1904). Babylonian and Assyrian Laws, Contracts and Letters. C. Scribner's sons. p. 361.
  2. ^ George Smith (1876). Ancient History from the Monuments: Assyria: From the Earliest Times to the Fall of Nineveh. Scribner, Armstrong. p. 167.
  3. ^ a b H. W. F. Saggs (2000). Babylonians. University of California Press. p. 133. ISBN 978-0-520-20222-1.
  4. ^ John Boederman (1997). The Cambridge Ancient History. Cambridge University Press. p. 52. ISBN 978-0-521-22717-9.
  5. ^ Trevor Bryce (10 September 2009). The Routledge Handbook of the Peoples and Places of Ancient Western Asia: The Near East from the Early Bronze Age to the fall of the Persian Empire. Routledge. p. 247. ISBN 978-1-134-15907-9.
  6. ^ Edward Lipiński (2000). The Aramaeans: Their Ancient History, Culture, Religion. Peeters Publishers. p. 479. ISBN 978-90-429-0859-8.
  7. ^ Peter Dubovský (2006). Hezekiah and the Assyrian Spies: Reconstruction of the Neo-Assyrian Intelligence Services and Its Significance for 2 Kings 18-19. Gregorian Biblical BookShop. p. 268. ISBN 978-88-7653-352-5.
  8. ^ Paul-Alain Beaulieu (20 November 2017). A History of Babylon, 2200 BC - AD 75. Wiley. p. 172. ISBN 978-1-119-45907-1.