Open main menu

GLONASS (first-generation satellites)

GLONASS (Russian: ГЛОНАСС-М), also known as Uragan (Russian: Ураган) (GRAU Index 11F654) are the first generation of Uragan satellite used as part of the Russian GLONASS radio-based satellite navigation system. Developed by Reshetnev Information Satellite Systems, it had its debut launch in 1983, with the last launched unit on 2005 and the retirement of the last unit Kosmos 2403 on April 30, 2009. It has been superseded by the GLONASS-M (GRAU Index 11F654M), the second-generation satellites.

GLONASS[1]
ManufacturerProduction Corporation Polyot
DesignerISS Reshetnev, Grigory Chernyavsky
Country of originRussia
OperatorJSC «Navigation-Information Systems»
ApplicationsNavigation
Specifications
Bus3-Axis stabilized Uragan[2]
ConstellationGLONASS
Design life3 years[1]
Launch mass1,413 kg (3,115 lb)[1]
Power1000 W[1]
BatteriesNiH2[3]
Equipment2 Cs clocks[3]
FDMA signals: L1OF, L1SF and L2SF
Space Laser Ranging[3]
RegimeMEO
Production
Built88
On order88
Launched88
Operational0
Retired82
Lost6
First launch1983-10-12
Last launch2005-12-25
Last retirement2009-04-30
← Tsikada GLONASS-M

Contents

DesignEdit

It used a 3-axis stabilized pressurized bus with two solar panels, a propulsion module and a payload module.[4] It weighs 1,413 kg (3,115 lb) generates 1000W of power and had a limited design life of 3 years, but it was extended to 5 years in later models. It had a strict requirement of keeping the internal temperature at ±1 °C. The previous design used an embedded liquid cooling system that weighted 340 kg (750 lb). The Uragan implemented a gaseous cooling system that put most of the heat generating parts on the outside of the pressure vessel, simplifying the system and weighing just 40 kg (88 lb).[5]

The Uragan-M are usually launched in trios, and due to the close distance, the radios of the three would interfere with each other, meaning that the ground segment can only command one satellite at a time. Setting sun pointing attitude for power and then Earth pointing attitude for communications for a single unit takes about 5 hours. Since the radio contact window with ground control is between 4 and 6 hours, ground control can not control all spacecrafts in a single pass. The onboard computer in the Uragan-M can put the spacecraft in sun pointing mode autonomously, and does many of the start up processes so the ground segment can take control and process the Earth pointing mode.[6]

The payload consisted of 3 L-Band navigation signals in 25 channels separated by 0.5625 MHz intervals in 2 frequency bands: 1602.5625 - 1615.5 MHz and 1240 - 1260 MHz. EIRP 25 to 27 dBW. Right hand circular polarized.[7] It transmits the FDMA signals L1OF, L1SF and L2SF. It uses 2 Cs clocks with a clock stability of 5x10−13. And includes retroreflector for accurate orbit assessment by laser ranging.[3]

VersionsEdit

The first generation Uragan spacecraft were created under ban of foreign radiation-hardened components and thus had an inferior expected design life of just 1 year.[8] Throughout the years the design was gradually improved to last up to 5 years:

  • Uragan Block I: First batch of 10 satellites. Only has an expected design life of 1 year, but averaged 14 months. Where launched between 1982 and 1985.[8]
  • Uragan Block IIa: Second batch of 9 satellites. Same design life as Block I, but averaged 17 months. Added new time and frequency standards and improved clock stability by an order of magnitude. Launched between 1985 and 1989.[8]
  • Uragan Block IIb: Third batch of 12 satellite. Had a 2-year design life time and averaged 22 months. Two launch failures meant that only 6 were operational. Launched between 1987 and 1988.[8]
  • Uragan Block IIv: The most numerous batch of the Uragan design, it had 56 units built and launched. The initial design life was 3 years but later enhancements on radiation hardening increased that to 5 years. Launched between 1988 and 2005.[8]
  • Uragan Block III: Transitional to GLONASS-M version with new flight control and power systems. This version was incorrectly named Uragan-M in a RIA Novosti news message issued days before the launch. When contacted by Novosti Kosmonavtiki magazine Roscosmos spokesman said all three launched satellites were first generation versions but one of them featured new upgraded flight control and power systems. The official design life was declared to be 5 years.[9] Novosti Kosmonavtiki also pointed out the fact that GLONASS-M project had been approved on August 20, 2001 just three months before Kosmos 2382 launch. Only one Block III satellite with manufacturer number №11L was produced.

Block I, II, and III nomenclature was introduced in Western publications. In Russian publications both Block I and II are known as 11F654 while Block III is known as 14F17.[10]

GLONASS LaunchesEdit

Satellite Launch (UTC) Carrier rocket Launch site Satellite type Launch Block № SC s/n Orbital Plane Slot Retired Remarks
Kosmos 1490 10 August 1983
18:24
Proton-K/DM-2 Baikonur 200/39 I 2 712 I 3 5 July 1984
Kosmos 1491 10 August 1983
18:24
Proton-K/DM-2 Baikonur 200/39 I 2 713 I 2 27 September 1984
Kosmos 1519 29 December 1983
00:52
Proton-K/DM-2 Baikonur 200/40 I 3 714 III 18 27 September 1984
Kosmos 1520 29 December 1983
00:52
Proton-K/DM-2 Baikonur 200/40 I 3 715 III 17 30 June 1986
Kosmos 1554 19 May 1984
15:11
Proton-K/DM-2 Baikonur 200/40 I 4 716 III 19 16 August 1985
Kosmos 1555 19 May 1984
15:11
Proton-K/DM-2 Baikonur 200/40 I 4 717 III 18 25 October 1985
Kosmos 1593 4 September 1984
15:49
Proton-K/DM-2 Baikonur 200/40 I 5 718 I 2 28 November 1985
Kosmos 1594 4 September 1984
15:49
Proton-K/DM-2 Baikonur 200/40 I 5 719 I 3 4 September 1986
Kosmos 1650 17 May 1985
22:28
Proton-K/DM-2 Baikonur 200/39 I 6 720 I 1 8 November 1985
Kosmos 1651 17 May 1985
22:28
Proton-K/DM-2 Baikonur 200/39 IIa 6 721 I 1 9 August 1987
Kosmos 1710 24 December 1985
21:43
Proton-K/DM-2 Baikonur 200/39 IIa 7 722 III 18 28 February 1987
Kosmos 1711 24 December 1985
21:43
Proton-K/DM-2 Baikonur 200/39 IIa 7 723 III 17 16 May 1987
Kosmos 1778 16 September 1986
11:38
Proton-K/DM-2 Baikonur 200/39 IIa 8 724 I 2 20 February 1987
Kosmos 1779 16 September 1986
11:38
Proton-K/DM-2 Baikonur 200/39 IIa 8 725 I 3 15 July 1988
Kosmos 1780 16 September 1986
11:38
Proton-K/DM-2 Baikonur 200/39 IIa 8 726 I 8 15 June 1988
Kosmos 1838 24 April 1987
12:42
Proton-K/DM-2 Baikonur 200/40 IIb 9 730 N/A Failed to reach correct orbit
Kosmos 1839 24 April 1987
12:42
Proton-K/DM-2 Baikonur 200/40 IIb 9 731 N/A Failed to reach correct orbit
Kosmos 1840 24 April 1987
12:42
Proton-K/DM-2 Baikonur 200/40 IIb 9 732 N/A Failed to reach correct orbit
Kosmos 1883 16 September 1987
02:53
Proton-K/DM-2 Baikonur 200/40 IIb 10 733 III - 6 June 1989
Kosmos 1884 16 September 1987
02:53
Proton-K/DM-2 Baikonur 200/40 IIb 10 734 III - 30 August 1988
Kosmos 1885 16 September 1987
02:53
Proton-K/DM-2 Baikonur 200/40 IIb 10 735 III 17 1 February 1989
Kosmos 1917 17 February 1988
00:23
Proton-K/DM-2 Baikonur 200/39 IIb 11 738 N/A Failed to reach correct orbit
Kosmos 1918 17 February 1988
00:23
Proton-K/DM-2 Baikonur 200/39 IIb 11 737 N/A Failed to reach correct orbit
Kosmos 1919 17 February 1988
00:23
Proton-K/DM-2 Baikonur 200/39 IIb 11 736 N/A Failed to reach correct orbit
Kosmos 1946 21 May 1988
17:57
Proton-K/DM-2 Baikonur 200/39 IIb 12 739 I 7 10 May 1990
Kosmos 1947 21 May 1988
17:57
Proton-K/DM-2 Baikonur 200/39 IIb 12 740 I 8 19 March 1991
Kosmos 1948 21 May 1988
17:57
Proton-K/DM-2 Baikonur 200/39 IIb 12 741 I 1 11 June 1991
Kosmos 1970 16 September 1988
02:00
Proton-K/DM-2 Baikonur 200/39 IIv 13 742 III 17 21 May 1990
Kosmos 1971 16 September 1988
02:00
Proton-K/DM-2 Baikonur 200/39 IIv 13 743 III 18 31 August 1989
Kosmos 1972 16 September 1988
02:00
Proton-K/DM-2 Baikonur 200/39 IIv 13 744 III 19 1 November 1991
Kosmos 1987 10 January 1989
02:05
Proton-K/DM-2 Baikonur 200/39 IIa 14 727 I 2 14 March 1993
Kosmos 1988 10 January 1989
02:05
Proton-K/DM-2 Baikonur 200/39 IIv 14 745 I 3 16 February 1992
Kosmos 2022 31 May 1989
08:32
Proton-K/DM-2 Baikonur 200/40 IIa 15 728 III 24 25 January 1990
Kosmos 2023 31 May 1989
08:32
Proton-K/DM-2 Baikonur 200/40 IIa 15 729 III 19 18 November 1989
Kosmos 2079 19 May 1990
08:32
Proton-K/DM-2 Baikonur 200/40 IIv 16 746 III 17 23 April 1994
Kosmos 2080 19 May 1990
08:32
Proton-K/DM-2 Baikonur 200/40 IIv 16 751 III 19 27 July 1994
Kosmos 2081 19 May 1990
08:32
Proton-K/DM-2 Baikonur 200/40 IIv 16 752 III 20 18 August 1992
Kosmos 2109 8 December 1990
02:43
Proton-K/DM-2 Baikonur 200/40 IIv 17 747 I 7 17 March 1994
Kosmos 2110 8 December 1990
02:43
Proton-K/DM-2 Baikonur 200/40 IIv 17 748 I 4 29 October 1993
Kosmos 2111 8 December 1990
02:43
Proton-K/DM-2 Baikonur 200/40 IIv 17 749 I 5 9 June 1996
Kosmos 2139 4 April 1991
10:47
Proton-K/DM-2 Baikonur 200/39 IIv 18 750 III 22 29 September 1994
Kosmos 2140 4 April 1991
10:47
Proton-K/DM-2 Baikonur 200/39 IIv 18 753 III 21 6 January 1992
Kosmos 2141 4 April 1991
10:47
Proton-K/DM-2 Baikonur 200/39 IIv 18 754 III 24 26 February 1992
Kosmos 2177 29 January 1992
22:19
Proton-K/DM-2 Baikonur 81/23 IIv 19 768 I 3 9 January 1993
Kosmos 2178 29 January 1992
22:19
Proton-K/DM-2 Baikonur 81/23 IIv 19 769 I 8 23 May 1997
Kosmos 2179 29 January 1992
22:19
Proton-K/DM-2 Baikonur 81/23 IIv 19 771 I 1 25 October 1996
Kosmos 2204 30 July 1992
01:59
Proton-K/DM-2 Baikonur 81/23 IIv 20 756 III 18 27 June 1997
Kosmos 2205 30 July 1992
01:59
Proton-K/DM-2 Baikonur 81/23 IIv 20 772 III 21 29 June 1994
Kosmos 2206 30 July 1992
01:59
Proton-K/DM-2 Baikonur 81/23 IIv 20 774 III 24 18 May 1996
Kosmos 2234 17 February 1993
20:09
Proton-K/DM-2 Baikonur 81/23 IIv 21 773 I 2 9 March 1994
Kosmos 2235 17 February 1993
20:09
Proton-K/DM-2 Baikonur 81/23 IIv 21 759 I 6 30 June 1997
Kosmos 2236 17 February 1993
20:09
Proton-K/DM-2 Baikonur 81/23 IIv 21 757 I 3 27 July 1997
Kosmos 2275 11 April 1994
07:49
Proton-K/DM-2 Baikonur 81/23 IIv 22 758 III 18 5 March 1999
Kosmos 2276 11 April 1994
07:49
Proton-K/DM-2 Baikonur 81/23 IIv 22 760 III 17 30 July 1999
Kosmos 2277 11 April 1994
07:49
Proton-K/DM-2 Baikonur 81/23 IIv 22 761 III 23 24 July 1997
Kosmos 2287 11 August 1994
15:27
Proton-K/DM-2 Baikonur 81/23 IIv 23 767 II 12 5 November 1998
Kosmos 2288 11 August 1994
15:27
Proton-K/DM-2 Baikonur 81/23 IIv 23 770 II 14 24 August 1999
Kosmos 2289 11 August 1994
15:27
Proton-K/DM-2 Baikonur 81/23 IIv 23 775 II 16 13 August 2000
Kosmos 2294 20 November 1994
00:39
Proton-K/DM-2 Baikonur 200/39 IIv 24 762 I 4 4 September 1999
Kosmos 2295 20 November 1994
00:39
Proton-K/DM-2 Baikonur 200/39 IIv 24 763 I 3 27 July 1999
Kosmos 2296 20 November 1994
00:39
Proton-K/DM-2 Baikonur 200/39 IIv 24 764 I 6 27 October 1999
Kosmos 2307 7 March 1995
09:23
Proton-K/DM-2 Baikonur 200/39 IIv 25 765 III 20 10 September 1999
Kosmos 2308 7 March 1995
09:23
Proton-K/DM-2 Baikonur 200/39 IIv 25 766 III 22 21 November 2000
Kosmos 2309 7 March 1995
09:23
Proton-K/DM-2 Baikonur 200/39 IIv 25 777 III 19 17 July 1997
Kosmos 2316 24 July 1995
15:52
Proton-K/DM-2 Baikonur 200/39 IIv 26 780 II 15 3 December 1998
Kosmos 2317 24 July 1995
15:52
Proton-K/DM-2 Baikonur 200/39 IIv 26 781 II 10 24 January 2001
Kosmos 2318 24 July 1995
15:52
Proton-K/DM-2 Baikonur 200/39 IIv 26 785 II 11 3 February 2001
Kosmos 2323 14 December 1995
06:10
Proton-K/DM-2 Baikonur 200/39 IIv 27 776 II 9 13 August 2000
Kosmos 2324 14 December 1995
06:10
Proton-K//DM-2 Baikonur 200/39 IIv 27 778 II 15 29 January 2001
Kosmos 2325 14 December 1995
06:10
Proton-K/DM-2 Baikonur 200/39 IIv 27 782 II 13 23 July 2001
Kosmos 2362 30 December 1998
18:35
Proton-K/DM-2 Baikonur 200/39 IIv 28 786 I 7 20 October 2003
Kosmos 2363 30 December 1998
18:35
Proton-K/DM-2 Baikonur 200/39 IIv 28 784 I 8 19 December 2003
Kosmos 2364 30 December 1998
18:35
Proton-K/DM-2 Baikonur 200/39 IIv 28 779 I 1 8 July 2002
Kosmos 2374 13 October 2000
14:12
Proton-K/DM-2 Baikonur 81/24 IIv 29 783 III 18 23 November 2007
Kosmos 2375 13 October 2000
14:12
Proton-K/DM-2 Baikonur 81/24 IIv 29 787 III 17 16 April 2007
Kosmos 2376 13 October 2000
14:12
Proton-K/DM-2 Baikonur 81/24 IIv 29 788 III 24 29 March 2006
Kosmos 2380 1 December 2001
18:04
Proton-K/DM-2 Baikonur 81/24 IIv 30 790 I 6 19 December 2003
Kosmos 2381 1 December 2001
18:04
Proton-K/DM-2 Baikonur 81/24 IIv 30 789 I 3 11 January 2008
Kosmos 2382 1 December 2001
18:04
Proton-K/DM-2 Baikonur 81/24 III 30 711 I 5 11 January 2008 with upgraded flight control and power systems[9]
Kosmos 2394 25 December 2002
07:37
Proton-K/DM-2 Baikonur 81/23 IIv 31 791 III 22 30 November 2007
Kosmos 2395 25 December 2002
07:37
Proton-K/DM-2 Baikonur 81/23 IIv 31 792 III 21 12 January 2008
Kosmos 2396 25 December 2002
07:37
Proton-K/DM-2 Baikonur 81/23 IIv 31 793 III 23 16 April 2007
Kosmos 2402 10 December 2003
13:53
Proton-K/Briz-M Baikonur 81/24 IIv 32 794 I 2 20 April 2007
Kosmos 2403 10 December 2003
13:53
Proton-K/Briz-M Baikonur 81/24 IIv 32 795 I 4 30 April 2009
Kosmos 2411 26 December 2004
13:53
Proton-K/DM-2 Baikonur 200/39 IIv 33 796 I 1 18 October 2008
Kosmos 2412 26 December 2004
13:53
Proton-K/DM-2 Baikonur 200/39 IIv 33 797 I 8 16 October 2008
Kosmos 2417 25 December 2005
05:07
Proton-K/DM-2 Baikonur 81/24 IIv 34 798 III 22 12 January 2008

Satellites by versionEdit

Version Launched Operational Not usable Retired Launch
Failures
Remarks
Uragan Block I 10 0 0 10 0
Uragan Block IIa 9 0 0 9 0
Uragan Block IIb 12 0 0 6 6
Uragan Block IIv 56 0 0 56 0
Uragan Block III 1 0 0 1 0
Total 88 0 0 82 6

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b c d Testoyedov, Nikolay (2015-05-18). "Space Navigation in Russia: History of Development" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2015-07-16. Retrieved 2015-07-15.
  2. ^ Krebs, Gunter Dirk (2015-03-06). "Uragan-M (GLONASS-M, 14F113)". Retrieved 2015-07-23.
  3. ^ a b c d "GLONASS Space Segment Status and Modernization" (PDF). ISS Reshetnev. 2012-11-09. Retrieved 2015-07-16.
  4. ^ Zak, Anatoly. "Uragan". RussianSpaceWeb.com. Retrieved 2015-07-23.
  5. ^ "Start of GLONASS" (PDF). Information Satellite Systems. ISS Reshetnev. October 2007. p. 25. Retrieved 2015-07-23.
  6. ^ "The GLONASS system space segment" (PDF). Information Satellite Systems. ISS Reshetnev. March 2008. p. 10. Retrieved 2015-07-23.
  7. ^ "Glonass Quicklook". NASA. Retrieved 2015-07-23.
  8. ^ a b c d e Johnson, Nicholas L. (November 1994). "GLONASS Spacecraft" (PDF). GPS World. p. 51. Retrieved 2015-07-23.
  9. ^ a b ""Глонасс-М" будет еще не скоро" [GLONASS-M not that soon] (in Russian). Novosti Kosmonavtiki. December 2001. Archived from the original on 7 November 2018. Retrieved 7 November 2018.
  10. ^ "Космические аппараты ГЛОНАСС" [GLONASS spacecrafts] (in Russian). Retrieved 7 November 2018.