Fusobacterium is a genus of anaerobic, Gram-negative, non-sporeforming bacteria belonging to Gracilicutes. Individual cells are slender, rod-shaped bacilli with pointed ends.[2][3] Strains of Fusobacterium cause several human diseases, including periodontal diseases, Lemierre's syndrome, and topical skin ulcers.

Fusobacterium novum 01.jpg
Fusobacterium novum in liquid culture
Scientific classification e
Domain: Bacteria
Phylum: Fusobacteriota
Class: Fusobacteriia
Order: Fusobacteriales
Family: Fusobacteriaceae
Staley and Whitman 2012
Genus: Fusobacterium
Knorr 1922
Type species
Fusobacterium nucleatum
Knorr 1922

Although older sources state that Fusobacterium is part of the normal flora of the human oropharynx, the current consensus is that Fusobacterium should always be treated as a pathogen.[4] F. prausnitzii, a gut commensal associated with healthy patients, was completely reclassified as Faecalibacterium (Clostridiales:Ruminococcaceae) in 2002.

Clinical relevanceEdit

In 2011, researchers discovered that Fusobacterium flourishes in colon cancer cells, and is often also associated with ulcerative colitis, although researchers have not determined if the organism actually causes these diseases or if it simply flourishes in the environment these diseases create.[5] The bacterium is a big anchor for biofilms.[6][7] It is usually susceptible to clindamycin,[8] while approximately 20% of the clinical strains are resistant to penicillin.[9] In contrast to Bacteroides spp., Fusobacterium has a potent lipopolysaccharide.


16S rRNA based LTP_12_2021[10][11][12] GTDB 07-RS207 by Genome Taxonomy Database[13][14][15]

F. perfoetens

F. gonidiaformans

F. equinum Dorsch et al. 2001

F. necrophorum

F. n. funduliforme Hallé 1898 ex Shinjo et al. 1991

F. n. necrophorum (Flügge 1886) Shinjo et al. 1991

F. ulcerans

F. varium

F. mortiferum

F. necrogenes

F. gastrosuis De Witte et al. 2017

F. russii

F. periodonticum

F. polymorphum

F. naviforme (Jungano 1909) Moore & Holdeman 1970

F. vincentii

F. canifelinum

F. nucleatum

F. simiae Slots and Potts 1982

Filifactor alocis (Cato et al. 1985) Jalava and Eerola 1999

F. animalis

F. watanabei Tomida et al. 2021

Fusobacterium perfoetens (Tissier 1905) Moore and Holdeman 1973

Cetobacterium Foster et al. 1996


F. ulcerans Adriaans and Shah 1988

F. varium (Eggerth and Gagnon 1933) Moore and Holdeman 1969

"Ca. F. pullicola" Gilroy et al. 2021

F. mortiferum (Harris 1901) Moore and Holdeman 1970

F. necrogenes (Weinberg et al. 1937) Moore and Holdeman 1970

F. gonidiaformans (Tunnicliff and Jackson 1925) Moore and Holdeman 1970

F. necrophorum (Flügge 1886) Shinjo et al. 1991

F. russii (Hauduroy et al. 1937) Moore and Holdeman 1970

"F. massiliense" Mailhe et al. 2017

F. periodonticum Slots et al. 1984

"F. pseudoperiodonticum" Park et al. 2019

F. animalis (Gharbia & Shah 1992) Kook et al. 2022

F. vincentii (Dzink, Sheenan & Socransky 1990) Kook et al. 2022

F. nucleatum Knorr 1922 (type sp.)

F. canifelinum corrig. Conrads et al. 2004

"F. hwasookii" Cho et al. 2014

F. polymorphum (Dzink, Sheenan & Socransky 1990) Kook et al. 2022

See alsoEdit


  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p Parte, A.C. "Fusobacterium". LPSN.
  2. ^ Madigan M; Martinko J, eds. (2005). Brock Biology of Microorganisms (11th ed.). Prentice Hall. ISBN 978-0-13-144329-7.
  3. ^ Taber's Cyclopedic Medical Dictionary, 22nd Edition, ISBN 9780803629790, (2009)n p.983
  4. ^ Aliyu SH, Marriott RK, Curran MD, et al. (October 2004). "Real-time PCR investigation into the importance of Fusobacterium necrophorum as a cause of acute pharyngitis in general practice". J Med Microbiol. 53 (Pt 10): 1029–35. doi:10.1099/jmm.0.45648-0. PMID 15358827.
  5. ^ Alice Park (18 October 2011). "A Surprising Link Between Bacteria and Colon Cancer". Time.com. Retrieved 18 October 2011.
  6. ^ Saito, Y.; Fujii, R.; Nakagawa, K.-I.; Kuramitsu, H. K.; Okuda, K.; Ishihara, K. (February 2008). "Stimulation of Fusobacterium nucleatum biofilm formation by Porphyromonas gingivalis". Oral Microbiology and Immunology. 23 (1): 1–6. doi:10.1111/j.1399-302X.2007.00380.x. hdl:10130/821. PMID 18173791.
  7. ^ Okuda, Tamaki; Kokubu, Eitoyo; Kawana, Tomoko; Saito, Atsushi; Okuda, Katsuji; Ishihara, Kazuyuki (Feb 2012). "Synergy in biofilm formation between Fusobacterium nucleatum and Prevotella species" (PDF). Anaerobe. 18 (1): 110–116. doi:10.1016/j.anaerobe.2011.09.003. hdl:10130/3922. ISSN 1095-8274. PMID 21945879.
  8. ^ "Clindamycin" (PDF). Davis. 2017. Archived from the original (PDF) on November 14, 2017. Retrieved November 14, 2017.
  9. ^ Di Bella, Stefano; Antonello, Roberta Maria; Sanson, Gianfranco; Maraolo, Alberto Enrico; Giacobbe, Daniele Roberto; Sepulcri, Chiara; Ambretti, Simone; Aschbacher, Richard; Bartolini, Laura; Bernardo, Mariano; Bielli, Alessandra (June 2022). "Anaerobic bloodstream infections in Italy (ITANAEROBY): A 5-year retrospective nationwide survey". Anaerobe. 75: 102583. doi:10.1016/j.anaerobe.2022.102583.
  10. ^ "The LTP". Retrieved 23 February 2021.
  11. ^ "LTP_all tree in newick format". Retrieved 23 February 2021.
  12. ^ "LTP_12_2021 Release Notes" (PDF). Retrieved 23 February 2021.
  13. ^ "GTDB release 07-RS207". Genome Taxonomy Database. Retrieved 20 June 2022.
  14. ^ "ar53_r207.sp_label". Genome Taxonomy Database. Retrieved 20 June 2022.
  15. ^ "Taxon History". Genome Taxonomy Database. Retrieved 20 June 2022.

External linksEdit