Frontier Village was a 39-acre (16 ha) amusement park in San Jose, California, that operated from 1961 to September 1980. It was located at 4885 Monterey Road, at the intersection with Branham Lane. The site is now Edenvale Garden Park, next to Hayes Mansion, and was once part of the sprawling Hayes Family Estate.[1]: 9–10 

Frontier Village
Frontier Village map
LocationSan Jose, California, USA
Coordinates37°15′43″N 121°49′10″W / 37.262055°N 121.819376°W / 37.262055; -121.819376
Opened21 October 1961 (1961-10-21)
Closed28 September 1980 (1980-09-28)
ThemeAmerican frontier
Operating seasonyear-round (weekends fall–spring)
Area33 acres (13 ha)

History edit

Development edit

A memorial plaque at Edenvale Garden Park expresses gratitude to Zukin for Frontier Village

The park was built by Joseph Zukin, Jr. of Palo Alto, who was inspired by a family trip to Disneyland in 1959.[2] In 1958, Zukin sold 110,000 shares in the Frontier Village corporation at $5 per share.[3] Additional funds were raised by selling 400,000 shares of stock at US$5 (equivalent to $50 in 2023) each,[4] of which nearly 80,000 shares were sold by October 1960, helped by a "substantial, but not controlling block" purchased by United California Theaters.[5]

The park was planned initially to be built along El Camino Real in Sunnyvale, California, according to plans drawn up in 1958 by the Frontier Village Corporation, founded by Zukin, Hawley Smith, and Michael Khourie. Zukin declared "it will be designed as a children's dream of the Old West, where the child (and his parents) can actually experience the thrills and excitement of the West in an atmosphere especially created for fun and relaxation."[6] Zukin later announced in April 1959 that Frontier Village would be built in San Jose,[7] on Hayes Ranch, part of the estate surrounding Hayes Mansion.[5]

Initial design was performed by Paul Murphy, who also had a full time job at Santa Clara University as director of publications. After Murphy found himself too busy to continue,[3] responsibility for the design was turned over to Laurence Hollings,[8][9] who had prior experience designing film sets at Columbia Pictures and Paramount Pictures, and nature habitats at the California Academy of Sciences. He described the park as a "sort of tongue-in-cheek approach to the Wild West."[2] For publicity, a touring western-themed show named "Frontier Days" visited local shopping centers in late spring 1960, including Valley Fair in San Jose and Bay Fair in San Leandro.[10]

Map of Frontier Village, printed on a sign originally posted by the "Marshal's Office".

Ground was broken for the park on August 1, 1960, and it was laid out so carefully that only four trees were removed.[1]: 11–12 [11]

Operation edit

The park, developed at a cost of $2 million,[12] opened on October 21, 1961,[2] surrounded by a high barricade of logs, and was themed to the Old West.[12] Admission was $0.90 for adults, $0.45 for children (older than 12), and free (for children under 12).[3] The initial public mascot of the park was an unnamed "Deputy Marshal" who greeted guests and saved them from dangerous outlaws in daily mock shootouts staged on the hour, every hour, at the park's Main Street.[1]: 71 [2] The actors were equipped with actual firearms (Colt Single Action Army revolvers and double-barrel shotguns) firing blanks filled with black powder.[13]: 10, 23–26  Retaining the water in an artificial canal for one of the early rides, the Indian Canoe, proved troublesome until the canal was lined with cement.[3] Although the park was open year-round, operating hours were switched to weekends only during the off-season (fall to spring). More than one million people visited the park in its first three years of operation.[12]

The 1964 summer season opened on Saturday, June 20, marked by a special "Family Fun Day".[14] Frontier Village was praised as "spotless, rarely jammed ... one can take in all of the rides and attractions within about four hours."[15] Jim Bakich, a first-year student at San Jose City College, attempted to set a world's record for the longest continuous Ferris wheel ride in 1965, vowing to spend two full weeks aboard the park's wheel.[16] Other self-claimed world records set at the park in 1966 include the finish of the longest foot-propelled scooter journey (114 mi (183 km) from Big Sur, by Byron Jones) and largest pizza (4+12 ft (1.4 m) in diameter).[17] Dennis the Menace visited the park with his parents in the story "The Park Lark", initially published for the March 1970 issue; while there, he interacted with the marshal, an outlaw, other guests, and visited several attractions, including the Rainbow Falls trout fishing pond and the Antique Cars ride.[18]

A short film entitled Kung-Phooey was filmed in part at Frontier Village in 1975; it was written and produced for less than $100 by a group of 29 elementary school students from San Francisco under the instruction of Darrell Sevilla. It won first prize at the National Educational Television Young Filmmakers' Festival.[19]

In 1977, Charles Jacques rated the park as the 45th best in the United States, behind local competitors Marriott's Great America (#12) and Santa Cruz Beach Boardwalk (#30).[20] It was also the first year of operation for the Apache Whirlwind, the park's first (and only) roller coaster.[21][22] Jeff Block and Rena Clark set a new record for Ferris wheel endurance starting on July 1, 1978, traveling 353.93 mi (569.60 km) on the park's wheel in 29,744 revolutions over 37 days.[23][24] Block would break the record in 1993 with a 38-day ride on the same Ferris wheel,[24] which had been relocated to the Orange County Fair after Frontier Village's closure.[25]

The first costumed character, a bear named Theodore, was introduced to the park in July 1972;[1]: 86  he was joined by a prospector named Tumbleweed in 1974 and Kactus Kong in 1977.[1]: 88, 92  The homegrown mascots were replaced by six characters from Hanna-Barbera cartoons in 1979: Yogi Bear, Quick Draw McGraw, Jabberjaw, Scooby-Doo, Fred Flintstone, and Huckleberry Hound.[26][27]

Closure edit

The Last Roundup poster, a poster representing all of the classic Hanna-Barbera characters leaving the village (the closure and abandonment of the park).

When the park opened in 1961, it was surrounded by undeveloped land. A decade later, the remainder of the substantial Hayes ranch had been sold off piecemeal and the park was surrounded by urban sprawl; Zukin lacked the necessary funds to expand and sold Frontier Village to Rio Grande Industries for US$1.7 million in 1973,[28] although he stayed on to manage the park through 1977.[29]

Rio Grande announced plans in 1977 to expand the park to 101 acres (41 ha) onto the former site of the drive-in theater[1]: 121  at a cost of $10 million, including on-site restaurants and concessions;[11] however, those plans were denied by the San Jose City Council,[29] unless the park also funded $1.8 million for traffic improvements.[11] According to Zukin, the protests and opposition from the park's new residential neighbors, who complained about the noise and fought development plans,[2] led Rio Grande to drop the expansion.[28] Lawsuits from nearby homeowners coupled with lower-than-expected park revenues, skyrocketing San Jose land values, and competition from Marriott's Great America, which opened in neighboring Santa Clara in 1976, signaled the end for the little park. With the high property values, Rio Grande could make more money selling off the land to developers than it could by running the park.[citation needed][29]

In 1980, the undeveloped land and Frontier Village were sold to a land developer, the Bren Company.[28] Despite a petition drive that collected 10,000 signatures by September 19, 1980, which would have declared the site a historical landmark,[28] Rio Grande announced the park would be closed. During its final days, it held a special event titled "The Last Roundup", attracting 30,000 visitors per day.[11] Television advertisements publicizing the last days included a stagecoach ride and a prisoner lamenting that he would miss the park's closing.[30] The park closed its gates for the last time on September 28, 1980.[2] The Bren Company held a public auction in October 1980, disposing of all the rides, buildings, and lumber that made up Frontier Village.[3]

Legacy edit

Bren built a residential development just west of present-day Edenvale Garden Park on the site of the planned expansion; the condominium complex is named "Frontier Village".[28]

All the buildings were removed from the amusement park and San Jose's Edenvale Garden Park now exists at the former location of the amusement park. Little is recognizable from the former Frontier Village, but items such as concrete boulders from the artificial river remain half-buried.[31] In April 2008, artist Jon Rubin installed the Frontier Village Birdhouses, five scale models of Frontier Village buildings and landmarks placed where the original structures were during the park's operating period. Each of the five scale buildings (Railroad Station; Main Entrance Log Towers; Mine Ride; Old School House; Main Street) is a functioning birdhouse and were built by Vince Duke.[32][33][34] The present-day Edenvale Garden Park has play structures themed for the amusement park's railroad.[35]

Some signage and ride vehicles have remained in the hands of private collectors, while other vehicles were stored at the nearby Happy Hollow Park & Zoo, to be sold later in 1980 at auction.[36] Two fans started a website to gather history, photographs, and testimonials in 2000.[37] Since 2001 former employees and fans have held a reunion each summer at Edenvale Garden Park to reminisce about the amusement park and a group calling themselves the "Fall Guys" re-enact the park's gunbattles;[38] the reunions were started by Mat Lindstedt.[39] Shaughnessy McGehee of Campbell, California built a miniature version of the park in his own backyard over two decades.[37][40] He built miniature versions of the Silver Dollar Saloon, General's Store, and Schoolhouse. McGehee also collected Frontier Village memorabilia, including the Crazy Horse, three of the eight Antique Autos (with his most prized being the Yellow Maxwell),[41] the Frontier Village lettering from the front entrance of the park, and the original Silver Dollar Saloon doors. The replica closed in 2015, after McGehee sold his house and moved to Oregon.[42][43]

Frontier Village's 2 ft 6 in (762 mm) narrow gauge train, originally built by Arrow Development,[44] was bought in 1981 by Jerry Burke, who made it the central focus of his 10 acre themed 1880 Western themed Burke Junction shopping center in Cameron Park, approximately 30 mi (48 km) east of Sacramento.[45][46] It was abandoned in 2000 after Burke sold the property and did not run again until the Glasser family purchased the shopping center in 2008; they spent $150,000 rehabilitating the train[47] and announced in June 2010 the train would resume service;[48] the inaugural run was on August 21.[49][50] On January 8, 2018, the Burke Junction train collided with a minivan; although there were no injuries, the train was damaged, requiring extensive repairs.[47][51]

The "It Takes a Village" exhibit featuring Frontier Village was held at the New Museum Los Gatos in 2015; artifacts and memorabilia were shown alongside similar ephemera from defunct local amusement parks, including Santa's Village (Scotts Valley) and The Lost World.[52]

Frontier Village is the subject of an eponymous song by singer-songwriters Jeff Larson and Jeffrey Foskett, released as part of the 2018 album ʻElua Aloha.[53]

Rides and Attractions edit

A car from the Antique Autos ride

As originally constructed, the 33-acre (13 ha) park was divided into the 10-acre (4.0 ha) amusement area and 5-acre (2.0 ha) parking lot; the remaining 13 acres (5.3 ha) were reserved for expansion.[54] The park was laid out with a central square and a perimeter railroad that traversed bridges and canyons; the square included an Old West village with a stage for live performances.[2]

Rides edit

Rides at Frontier Village[55]
Name Mfr. Model / Type Installed Removed Notes
Antique Autos Arrow Development Antique Car Ride 1961 1980 Originally "Horseless Carriage Ride".[56] Vehicles were scale models of Ford Model T and Maxwell automobiles,[57] driven by an electric motor drawing power from guide rail.[1]: 40 
Apache Whirlwind Mack Rides Blauer Enzian (powered coaster) 1977 1980 Purchased for $599,292.23 on December 31, 1976. Last thrill ride at the park.[58]
Burro Pack Train Passenger animal team 1961 1980 Originally "Burro Ride".[56] Train of small donkeys that carried passengers.[59]
Duster-Turnpike Arrow Development Antique Car Ride 1975 1980 Added due to popularity of Antique Autos, using gasoline-powered "Arrow Flyer" vehicles.[1]: 41 [60]
Ferris Wheel Eli Bridge "Big Eli" Ferris Wheel 1965 1980 12 seats, 42 ft (13 m) tall.[1]: 32  Sold to Santa's Village (Sky Forest) in 1980 after park's closure.[61]
Frontier Village Railroad Arrow Development 2 ft 6 in (762 mm) narrow gauge miniature railroad 1961 1980 Original script was narrated by engineer "Casey Jones" for the Frontier Village & Southern Pacific Railroad (later changed to Rio Grande after 1973).[62][63] One train is in operation at Burke Junction Shopping Center in Cameron Park, California.[64] Uses automobile drivetrain (engine and transmission from a Chevrolet Corvair).[1]: 27–28 
Indian Jim's Canoes Old Town Canoe Company[1]: 53  Canoe Ride 1961 1980 Originally "Indian War Canoe Ride"[56] and "Indian Jim's War Canoes".[65] Paddled by guests.[66]
Lost Dutchman Mine Ride Arrow Development Dark ride 1961 1980 Originally the "Lost Frontier Mine Ride".[56][67]
Merry-Go-Round Herschell Carousel 1961 1980 Originally built c. 1923[68] and installed at Frontier Village as "Carousel".[56] Sold to Santa's Village (Sky Forest) in 1980 after park's closure.[61][69] Purchased at auction by a private collector in 1997 after Santa's Village closed.[68]
Old 99 Train Ride Bradley & Kaye Kiddie Train Ride 1968 1980 [70] Sold to Happy Hollow Zoo after park's closure.[1]: 59 
The Round Up Hrubetz Round Up 1972 1980 Began operation in 1972.[1]: 38  Decorated with bull heads.[71]
Sidewinder Sellner Tilt-A-Whirl 1968 1980 Installed for 1968 season.[1]: 35  [72]
Spirit of Kitty Hawk Bisch-Rocco Flying Scooters 1971 1980 Purchased from Santa Cruz Beach Boardwalk.[1]: 36  Themed with World War I-era tail art.[73]
Stagecoach Dells Fargo Company[1]: 24  Horse-drawn stagecoach 1961 1980 Originally "Wild Country".[56][74]
Stampede Eli Bridge Scrambler 1966 1975 Installed in 1966; removed for Tarantula in 1975.[1]: 30–31  Originally "Wild Stampede".[65][75]
Tarantula Eyerly Monster 1975 1980 [76]

Attractions edit

  • California Street (Dapper Dan's, Last Chance Casino, Shoe & Spike)
  • El Sito Mysterio[1]: 50–51 
  • Front Street (Birthday Party Corral, Games, Hunter's Paradise Shooting Gallery, Ice Cream Gazebo, Skeeball)
  • Indian Island (Archery, Fort Far West, Indian Island Stage)[1]: 63 
  • Main Street (Arcade, Cantina Murieta, Gunfights, Indian Goods, Marshal's Office, Picture Palace, Silver Dollar Saloon, Sweet Shop, Trading Post)[1]: 15 
  • Nevada Street
  • Petting Zoo Island (opened 1969)[1]: 57 
  • Reserved Company Picnics
  • Rainbow Falls Trout Fishing (measured 120 ft × 45 ft × 12 ft (36.6 m × 13.7 m × 3.7 m); stocked with 10,000 rainbow trout)[1]: 45–47 
  • Sagebrush Theatre
  • School House Museum[1]: 48 
  • Frontier Auto Movie (behind the park on the southwest side) access was through the parking lot for the village. Drive in movie theater open all year round.

See also edit

References edit

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w Johnson, Bob (2013). Frontier Village: 1949-2013. Charleston, South Carolina: Arcadia Publishing. ISBN 978-0-7385-9665-5. LCCN 2012948357. OCLC 815383819.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g Kohnke, Diana (2009). "Guide to the Frontier Village Collection, 1961–1980". Online Archive of California. Retrieved 2 August 2021.
  3. ^ a b c d e McKay, Leonard (September 1996). "Frontier Village" (PDF). San Jose Historical Museum Association News. Vol. XVI, no. 5. p. 7. Retrieved 2 August 2021.
  4. ^ Abbott, Sam (April 11, 1960). "Value of California, Arizona Theme Parks Set $78,000,000". The Billboard. pp. 51–52.
  5. ^ a b "Amusement Park Operation: Theater Firm Buys Stock in Calif. Theme Project". The Billboard. October 3, 1960. p. 59.
  6. ^ "Stock Sale For Frontier Village Plan". San Mateo Times. August 20, 1958. Retrieved 4 August 2021.
  7. ^ "Plan San Jose Frontier Village" (PDF). Billboard. April 13, 1959. Retrieved 4 August 2021.
  8. ^ "Frontier Village Collection". San Jose Public Library California Room.
  9. ^ "Laurence Hollings Drawings for Frontier Village at History San Jose". History San Jose. 4 January 2017. Retrieved 31 July 2021.
  10. ^ "Amusement Park Operation: Shop Centers, Theme Parks Join in Promotional Plans". The Billboard. May 30, 1960. p. 59.
  11. ^ a b c d Seifert, Jeffrey L. (September 2013). "Arcadia Book offers chronicle of Northern California's Frontier Village" (PDF). Amusement Today. Retrieved 3 August 2021.
  12. ^ a b c Madsen, Lillie L. (November 1, 1964). "Fronier Village Draws Travel Editor: Flavor of Old West in Family Playgrounds". The Oregon Statesman. Retrieved 31 July 2021.
  13. ^ "Frontier Village Entertainment Guide". San Jose Public Library, California Room. 1975. Retrieved 2 August 2021.
  14. ^ "Family Day Observed at Fun Village". Ukiah Daily Journal. June 24, 1964. Retrieved 31 July 2021.
  15. ^ "S.J. Land of the West". San Mateo Times. September 30, 1967. Retrieved 31 July 2021.
  16. ^ "A Close Shave in Orbit". Opelousas Daily World. UPI. July 11, 1965. Retrieved 31 July 2021.
  17. ^ "Sunday News Final". KNTV Channel 11 News Reel. August 21, 1966. Retrieved 2 August 2021. Broadcast footage
  18. ^ Ketcham, Hank (March 1970). "The Park Lark". Dennis the Menace. No. 107. pp. 3–15. Retrieved 2 August 2021.
  19. ^ Hoffman, Jim (December 1975). "Martial Arts can be childs play". Black Belt. pp. 56–57.
  20. ^ Kalina, Mike (June 26, 1978). "The Amusement Park Courmet". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. Retrieved 31 July 2021.
  21. ^ "Frontier Village Days". San Mateo Times. May 25, 1977. Retrieved 2 August 2021.
  22. ^ Apache Whirlwind at the Roller Coaster DataBase
  23. ^ "Now You Know". UPI Archives. June 9, 1987. Retrieved 31 July 2021.
  24. ^ a b "Big wheel in Ferrises to try again". Akron Beacon Journal. March 18, 1993. Retrieved 31 July 2021.
  25. ^ Di Rado, Alicia (July 26, 1993). "County Fair and Record Ride Come to Close". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 31 July 2021.
  26. ^ "Frontier Village, The Gang's All Here". San Jose Public Library, California Room. March 28, 1979. Retrieved 2 August 2021.
  27. ^ "Frontier Village, Barney Rubble". San Jose Public Library, California Room. July 25, 1979. Retrieved 2 August 2021.
  28. ^ a b c d e "Frontier Village History, Part II". Remembering Frontier Village. Archived from the original on February 18, 2020.
  29. ^ a b c Lassiter, Mike (September 3, 1980). "Theme parks adopting a new theme: participation". San Francisco Examiner. Retrieved 31 July 2021.
  30. ^ "Frontier Village Stagecoach commercial, jail commercial". San Jose Public Library, California Room. June 1980. Retrieved 2 August 2021.
  31. ^ "Now & Then". Remembering Frontier Village. Archived from the original on September 6, 2019.
  32. ^ "Frontier Village Birdhouses". City of San Jose. Retrieved 2 August 2021.
  33. ^ Rubin, Jon. "Frontier Village". Retrieved 2 August 2021.
  34. ^ "Latest Projects". Maxinkuckee Replicas. Retrieved 2 August 2021.
  35. ^ Maldonado, Brandy (January 7, 2020). "Adventures Outside: Edenvale Garden Park [blog]". San Jose Public Library. Retrieved 2 August 2021.
  36. ^ Frontier Village Train damaged in accident. Santa Cruz Sentinel Jan 20, 2018
  37. ^ a b Hartlaub, Peter (August 24, 2010). "Frontier Village: Old West park preserved". San Francisco Chronicle. p. E-1. Retrieved January 16, 2011. The father of four teenagers has spent much of the past decade rebuilding Frontier Village
  38. ^ Lukes, Paul (June 7, 2012). "Annual reunions keep memories of San Jose's Frontier Village alive". San Jose Mercury News. Retrieved February 17, 2016.
  39. ^ "Nostalgia alert: A chance to celebrate San Jose's beloved Frontier Village". San Jose Mercury News. June 27, 2019. Retrieved 2 August 2021.
  40. ^ Skipitares, Connie (November 7, 2006). "Dad builds own Frontier Village". San Jose Mercury News. Retrieved January 16, 2011. He built a scaled-down version of the park in the back yard of the Campbell home where he grew up and where he and his family now live.
  41. ^ "Valley man bids for a ride back to childhood". San Jose Mercury News. June 8, 2008. Retrieved 2 August 2021.
  42. ^ Rodriguez, Joe (September 18, 2015). "Frontier Village mini-version to close, a second goodbye to beloved San Jose amusement park". San Jose Mercury News. Retrieved February 17, 2016.
  43. ^ Thomas, Garvin (September 23, 2015). "Campbell Man's Backyard Homage To Long-Lost Amusement Park, Built Over 20 Years, To Soon Close". KNTV. Retrieved February 17, 2016.
  44. ^ Kelley, Ed (January 2002). "Arrow Dynamics and The Amusement Park Train". Discover Live Steam. No. 13. Retrieved 2 August 2021.
  45. ^ Burke Junction Shopping Center buys Frontier Village train.
  46. ^ "BuJu Line – official website". Retrieved 18 January 2019.
  47. ^ a b Graff, Amy (January 24, 2018). "Train from SJ's old Frontier Village nearly totaled in collision with minivan". SF Gate. Retrieved 2 August 2021.
  48. ^ Lakey, Pat (October 7, 2014). "Burke Junction Express back on track". Village Life. Retrieved 2 August 2021.
  49. ^ Hosseini, Raheem; Usher, Penne (July 13, 2010). "Burke Junction train nearly restored". Gold Country Media. Retrieved 2 August 2021.
  50. ^ Burke Junction Train Inaugural 2010 -- Cameron Park, CA on YouTube
  51. ^ Lakey, Pat (January 22, 2018). "Bam! Train's chug umplugged at Burke Junction". Mountain Democrat. Retrieved 2 August 2021.
  52. ^ Singh, Gary (November 4, 2015). "Forgotten Frontier". metroactive. Retrieved 4 August 2021.
  53. ^ Marchese, Joe (June 12, 2018). "Need a Little Summer: Jeff Larson, Jeffrey Foskett Team for 'ʻElua Aloha'". The Second Disc. Retrieved 31 July 2021.
  54. ^ "Frontier Village History". Remembering Frontier Village. Archived from the original on February 14, 2020.
  55. ^ "Rides & Attractions". Remembering Frontier Village. Archived from the original on February 14, 2020.
  56. ^ a b c d e f "1961 Map". Remembering Frontier Village. Archived from the original on February 21, 2020.
  57. ^ "Antique Autos". Remembering Frontier Village. Archived from the original on January 28, 2020.
  58. ^ "Apache Whirlwind". Remembering Frontier Village. Archived from the original on January 28, 2020.
  59. ^ "Burro Pack Train". Remembering Frontier Village. Archived from the original on January 28, 2020.
  60. ^ "Duster-Turnpike". Remembering Frontier Village. Archived from the original on January 28, 2020.
  61. ^ a b Bray, Lourinda (December 2006). "Fond Memories of Pixies, Elves, Reindeer, and Santa's Villages" (PDF). Carousel News & Trader. Retrieved 3 August 2021.
  62. ^ "Frontier Village Railroad Engineer's Script". Remembering Frontier Village. Archived from the original on December 28, 2019.
  63. ^ "1977 Map". Remembering Frontier Village. Archived from the original on February 21, 2020.
  64. ^ "Frontier Village Railroad". Remembering Frontier Village. Archived from the original on January 28, 2020.
  65. ^ a b "1971 Map". Remembering Frontier Village. Archived from the original on January 8, 2017.
  66. ^ "Indian Jim's Canoes". Remembering Frontier Village. Archived from the original on January 28, 2020.
  67. ^ "Lost Dutchman Mine Ride". Remembering Frontier Village. Archived from the original on January 28, 2020.
  68. ^ a b Bray, Lourinda (December 2006). "FSanta's Frontier Village Carousel Now a Restoration Labor of Love" (PDF). Carousel News & Trader. Retrieved 3 August 2021.
  69. ^ "Merry-Go-Round". Remembering Frontier Village. Archived from the original on January 28, 2020.
  70. ^ "Old 99 Train Ride". Remembering Frontier Village. Archived from the original on January 28, 2020.
  71. ^ "The Round Up". Remembering Frontier Village. Archived from the original on January 28, 2020.
  72. ^ "The Sidewinder". Remembering Frontier Village. Archived from the original on January 28, 2020.
  73. ^ "The Spirit of Kitty Hawk". Remembering Frontier Village. Archived from the original on January 28, 2020.
  74. ^ "Stagecoach Ride". Remembering Frontier Village. Archived from the original on February 20, 2020.
  75. ^ "Stampede". Remembering Frontier Village. Archived from the original on January 28, 2020.
  76. ^ "The Tarantula". Remembering Frontier Village. Archived from the original on January 28, 2020.

External links edit