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In chemical kinetics, the pre-exponential factor or A factor is the pre-exponential constant in the Arrhenius equation, an empirical relationship between temperature and rate coefficient. It is usually designated by A when determined from experiment, while Z is usually left for collision frequency.
The units of the pre-exponential factor A are identical to those of the rate constant and will vary depending on the order of the reaction. For a first-order reaction, it has units of s−1. For that reason, it is often called frequency factor.
According to collision theory, the frequency factor, A, depends on how often molecules collide when all concentrations are 1 mol/L and on whether the molecules are properly oriented when they collide. Values of A for some reactions can be found at Collision theory#Steric factor.