Frank Edward Clarke

Frank Edward Clarke (1849 – 1 July 1899[1]) was a New Zealand ichthyologist and scientific illustrator. He discovered numerous fish species previously unknown to science and was the third most active describer of those new species in New Zealand from 1870 to 1905.[2] Clarke was also an artist and a collection of his scientific illustrations is held at Museum of New Zealand Te Papa Tongarewa.

Frank Edward Clarke
Frank Edward Clarke (cropped).jpg
Born1849
Suffolk, England
Died1 July 1899
New Plymouth, New Zealand
OccupationIchthyologist, Scientific illustrator and draftsman of the Survey Department, New Zealand

BiographyEdit

Early lifeEdit

Clarke was born in Suffolk, England in 1849.[3] In early 1876 Clarke was appointed Chief draftsman in the Survey Department in Westland.[4]

Scientific and artistic contributionsEdit

Clarke was a member of the New Zealand Institute, as the Royal Society of New Zealand was then known, and was a trustee of the Westland Institute.[5] He read his scientific papers before the Westland Institute, the Hokitika Literary Society[6] and the Wellington Philosophical Society.[7] His papers would subsequently be forwarded to the New Zealand Institute for publication.[8]

Amongst Clarke's scientific discoveries, he was the first uncover the presence of Himantolophind anglefishes in New Zealand in 1877.[9] Clarke obtained the specimen of Himantolophus appelii, which he described in his scientific paper, from Mr Appel of Hokitika and named the species in his honour.[10]

Clarke also obtained a fish specimen collected on 6 August 1878 by W. Duncan. Clarke subsequently described and named that species as Argentina decagon and forwarded the specimen to the Colonial Museum, now the Museum of New Zealand Te Papa Tongarewa, where it is still kept.[11][12] However Clarke had been preempted by Frederick Hutton who had described the new species as Argentina elongata in January 1879. Clarke is unlikely to have seen Hutton's description.[13]

 
Argentina decagon Clarke, 1879: Silverside, Argentina elongata (Hutton, 1879); New Zealand, by Frank Edward Clarke. Purchased 1921. Te Papa (1992-0035-2278/43)

Some time in or around 1894 Clarke was transferred from the Survey Department in Westland. Prior to him leaving he was presented with an illuminated address by the Mayor of Hokitika on behalf of the citizens of Hokitika. The address expressed their appreciation of Clarke's work and in particular their recognition of his "study and original observations of the fish of this coast".[14]

Sir James Hector is recorded as saying of Clarke that Clarke's "knowledge of fish was minute and accurate, and it would be difficult to exaggerate the beauty and scientific fidelity of his drawings. A special value attached to these drawings inasmuch as some represented rare and others absolutely unique specimens which had come under Mr. Clarke's observation". Hector hoped the collection of Clarke's drawings would be purchased in its complete form by a museum.[15] The Museum of New Zealand Te Papa Tongarewa did in fact purchase Clarke's drawings and watercolours from his wife in 1921.[16]

Clarke also designed the common seal for the Municipal Corporation of Kumara.[17]

 
Hypoplectrodes semicinctum, 1875, New Zealand, by Frank Edward Clarke. Purchased 1921. Te Papa (1992-0035-2278/6)

Marriage and childrenEdit

Clarke was married. He and his wife had the following children

  • A son (24 February 1877)[18]
  • A son, Norman (31 March 1881)[19][20]
  • A daughter (27 June 1884)[21]
  • A daughter (6 April 1886)[22]
  • A daughter (1 May 1888)[23]

DeathEdit

Clarke died on Saturday, 1 July 1899, of heart disease.[1]

Published worksEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b "Obituary". The New Zealand Herald. Retrieved 18 June 2015 – via Papers Past.
  2. ^ Saunders, Brian (2012). Discovery of Australia's fishes : a history of Australian ichthyology to 1930 (2e dr. ed.). Collingwood, Vic.: CSIRO Pub. p. 270. ISBN 9780643106727. Retrieved 17 June 2015.
  3. ^ "Person: Clarke, F E". www.tepapa.govt.nz. Museum of New Zealand Te Papa Tongarewa. Retrieved 17 June 2015.
  4. ^ "Untitled" (Volume XXI, Issue 2381, Page 2). Grey River Argus. Grey River Argus. 28 March 1876. Retrieved 18 June 2015.
  5. ^ "Westland Institute". Transactions and Proceedings of the Royal Society of New Zealand. 20: 469. 1887. Retrieved 18 June 2015.
  6. ^ "New Zealand Institute Transactions". The New Zealand Herald (5180). New Zealand Herald. 24 June 1878. p. 6. Retrieved 18 June 2015.
  7. ^ Clarke, F. E. (1898). "Notes on New Zealand Galaxidæ, mare especially those of the Western Slopes: with Descriptions of New Species, &c". Transactions and Proceedings of the Royal Society of New Zealand. 31: 78. Retrieved 18 June 2015.
  8. ^ "Annual Report of the Hokitika Literary Society" (3959). West Coast Times. West Coast Times. 9 December 1881. p. 2. Retrieved 18 June 2015.
  9. ^ Stewart, Andrew L.; Pietsch, Theodore W. (2010). "A new species of deep-sea anglerfish, genus Himantolophus (Lophiiformes: Himantolophidae) from the Western South Pacific, with comments on the validity of H. pseudalbinares" (PDF). Zootaxa (2671): 53. Retrieved 18 June 2015.
  10. ^ Clarke, F. E. (1877). "On two new Fishes". Transactions and Proceedings of the Royal Society of New Zealand. 10: 244. Retrieved 18 June 2015.
  11. ^ "Object: Silverside, Argentina elongata (Hutton, 1879); holotype of Argentina decagon Clarke, 1879". Te Papa Online. Museum of New Zealand Te Papa Tongarewa. Retrieved 18 June 2015.
  12. ^ Clarke, F. E. (1878). "On a new Fish found at Hokitika". Transactions and Proceedings of the Royal Society of New Zealand. 11: 295. Retrieved 18 June 2015.
  13. ^ Cohen, Daniel M. (1958). "A revision of the Fishes of the Subfamily Argentininae". Bulletin of the Florida State Museum. 3 (3): 138. Retrieved 18 June 2015.
  14. ^ "Presentation to Mr F. E. Clarke". Taranaki Herald. XLIV (10256). 11 March 1895. p. 2. Retrieved 18 June 2015.
  15. ^ "Second Meeting: 6 August 1901". Transactions and Proceedings of the Royal Society of New Zealand. 34: 563. 6 August 1901. Retrieved 18 June 2015.
  16. ^ "Object: Internal Affairs files relating to the administration of the Colonial/Dominion Museum". Te Papa Collections Online. Museum of New Zealand Te Papa Tongarewa. Retrieved 18 June 2015.
  17. ^ "West Coast Times Monday 10 September 1877". West Coast Times. West Coast Times. 10 September 1877. p. 2. Retrieved 18 June 2015.
  18. ^ "Birth" (2471). Westcoast Times. 1 March 1877. Retrieved 18 June 2015.
  19. ^ "Birth" (3742). West Coast Times. 4 April 1881. p. 2. Retrieved 18 June 2015.
  20. ^ Clarke, F. E. (June 1900). "Triangular teeth amongst Maoris". The Journal of the Polynesian Society. 9 (2): 121–124. Retrieved 18 June 2015.
  21. ^ "Birth" (4654). West Coast Times. West Coast Times. 28 June 1884. p. 2. Retrieved 18 June 2015.
  22. ^ "Birth" (6185). West Coast Times. 8 April 1886. p. 2. Retrieved 18 June 2015.
  23. ^ "Birth" (7078). West Coast Times. 3 May 1888. Retrieved 18 June 2015.

External linksEdit