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Walking through a bamboo forest in Arashiyama, Kyoto

Forest bathing is the practice of taking a short, leisurely visit to a forest for health benefits. The practice originated in Japan where it is called shinrin-yoku (森林浴) in Japanese (it is also called sēnlínyù (森林浴) in Mandarin and sanlimyok (산림욕) in Korean).

Shinrin Yoku Samurai Spain 侍

Studies in Japan have measured changes in immune markers and stress hormones in people who regularly walked in specific forests in Japan. In addition, people with diabetes but not taking insulin found substantial benefits by lowering blood glucose levels.

Contents

HistoryEdit

A forest bathing trip involves visiting a forest for relaxation and recreation while breathing in volatile substances, called phytoncides (wood essential oils), which are antimicrobial volatile organic compounds derived from trees, such as α-Pinene and limonene. Incorporating forest bathing trips into a good lifestyle was first proposed in 1982 by the Forest Agency of Japan. It has now become a recognized relaxation and/or stress management activity in Japan.

In Europe in 2007, the Master Samurai Spain 侍 was moved to a forest in the Serrania de Ronda in Andalucia (Spain), where his studies search fascinated by nature and benefits with the practice of Shinrin-yoku began. Founded the first ASEUSY European association of Shinrin-Yoku[1]for the practice of these therapies. For 24 hours in the forest it confirmed the positive impact it brings to our system, which results in health and quality of life. Life in the forest solidify its experience and developed hundreds of field studies and research with practice Shinrin Yoku providing a mutual experiment called "Eating alive Forest".[2] Discovered when combining these two preventive therapies related the importance of Shinrin-yoku. A set of balance and healthy habits along with the practice of Shinrin-yoku improves physical and mental health. The evidence and scientific studies that are being applied have been developed in children and their relationship with Shinrin-yoku.[3]

There has been interest in forest bathing in the US.[4]

 StudiesEdit

Beginning in 2004, studies have been done by Yuko Tsunetsugu, Bum-Jin Park, and Yoshifumi Miyazaki to analyze the effects of Shinrin-yoku on physical and mental health, calling it the "Therapeutic Effects of Forests."[5] Their work focused on how natural settings affected the senses of sight, sound, smell, and touch. A preliminary analysis done in a laboratory took place before performing the field study in an actual forest.

Laboratory studiesEdit

On the analysis for sight (visual stimulation), test subjects were shown two different scenery on display screens while their pulse and blood pressure were being monitored, a grey screen was used as control.[5] A photograph of "Sakura" blossoms were shown, followed by a photograph of people walking in a forest, Shinrin-yoku. The results showed that Sakura stimulated both pulse rate and blood pressure. The researchers speculated that this was due to the excitement that came with the flowers blooming. On the other hand, the Shinrin-yoku image caused a decrease in blood pressure in comparison to both the Sakura image and the control.[5]

The sound analysis (auditory stimulation) measured brain activity and systolic blood pressure while the test subjects listened to a mechanical turbine and that of a water stream. The turbine sounds increased systolic blood pressure, whereas the stream had no effect. Further research was later done to clarify the discrepancies between variables such as age, physical health, dental health, and other possible determinate factors.

The smell analysis (olfactory stimulation) was done with the testing of three different tree scents commonly found in Japan. In relation to phytoncides, it is speculated that smells associated with trees/forests would stimulate the most physiological change.[5] The first sample was of Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica), which resulted in a decrease both blood pressure and activity in the prefrontal cortext. The second sample was of Hiba (Thujopsis dolabrata) oil, which is commonly used to treat anxiety, depression, and kidney dialysis. The results of the test showed that the Hiba oil significantly stimulated the nervous system. The third sample was of the smell of Taiwan cypress (Chamaecyparis taiwanensis), which increased the both productivity and concentration. The researchers speculated that the increase in concentration was due to relaxation caused by the Taiwan cypress essential oil.

Finally, the touch analysis (tactile stimulation) was carried out by an experiment in which the test subject was given a room temperature metal plate, a plate made of oak that was cold, and an oak plate covered in a thick layer of paint. The metal plate and the oak plate covered in thick layers of paint aroused uneasy feelings and resulted in a significant increase in blood pressure. The cold oak plates on the other hand gave pleasant results, leading researchers to conclude that woodiness is pleasant to human nature regardless of temperature.

Field studiesEdit

An on-field study was done in Chiba Prefecture, Japan, where subjects took 20 minute walks on each in the Seiwa Prefectural Forest Park, which is mainly oak trees, and the control site of Chiba Station.[5] The subjects showed a much lower hemoglobin concentration when walking in the oak forest as opposed to Chiba Station. The final results also showed an increase in concentration and lowered stress hormones when the subjects were in the forest area.[5]

Research reviewEdit

A 2010 research review found that forest environments promoted lower concentrations of cortisol, lower pulse rate, lower blood pressure, greater parasympathetic nerve activity, and lower sympathetic nerve activity than city environments.[6]

Psychological effectsEdit

Forest environments have been found to be advantageous with respect to acute emotions, especially among those experiencing chronic stress.[7]

HealthEdit

A test was done in the late 1990's by the Department of Gerontotherapeutics at Hokkaido University School of Medicine on 87 test subjects who were non-insulin dependent diabetic patients.[8] The task required patients to take walks of either 3 km, which took 30 minutes to complete, or 6 km, which took one hour to complete, in a forest, in which blood samples were taken periodically. The test was implemented 9 times within 6 years and the results showed that the Shinrin-yoku significantly benefited the health of diabetic patients, lowering blood glucose levels as far as 38.9% for 3 km walks and 40.0% for 6 km walks.[8]

General benefits of being outdoors in natureEdit

Forest bathing fits in the more general finding of benefits from being outdoors in nature.[9][10][11][12]

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "ASEUSY". Samuraispain.org. Retrieved 25 February 2016. [unreliable source?]
  2. ^ "Shinrin-Yoku: Forest Medicine". Samuraispain.org. Retrieved 25 February 2016. [unreliable source?]
  3. ^ "De Technology to Natural Boys 'Shinrin-Yoku'". Sunotadeprensa.com. June 8, 2012. Retrieved 25 February 2016. [self-published source?]
  4. ^ Kim, Meeri (May 17, 2016). "‘Forest bathing’ is latest fitness trend to hit U.S. — ‘Where yoga was 30 years ago’". Washington Post. Retrieved 25 May 2017. 
  5. ^ a b c d e f Tsunetsugu, Yuko; Park, Bum-Jin; Miyazaki, Yoshifumi (2009). "Trends in research related to "Shinrin-yoku" (taking in the forest atmosphere or forest bathing) in Japan". Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine. 15 (1): 27–37. PMC 2793347 . PMID 19585091. doi:10.1007/s12199-009-0091-z. 
  6. ^ Park, Bum Jin; Tsunetsugu, Yuko; Kasetani, Tamami; Kagawa, Takahide; Miyazaki, Yoshifumi (2009). "The physiological effects of Shinrin-yoku (taking in the forest atmosphere or forest bathing): Evidence from field experiments in 24 forests across Japan". Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine. 15 (1): 18–26. PMC 2793346 . PMID 19568835. doi:10.1007/s12199-009-0086-9. 
  7. ^ Morita, E.; Fukuda, S.; Nagano, J.; Hamajima, N.; Yamamoto, H.; Iwai, Y.; Nakashima, T.; Ohira, H.; Shirakawa, T. (2007). "Psychological effects of forest environments on healthy adults: Shinrin-yoku (forest-air bathing, walking) as a possible method of stress reduction". Public Health. 121 (1): 54–63. PMID 17055544. doi:10.1016/j.puhe.2006.05.024. 
  8. ^ a b Ohtsuka, Y.; Yabunaka, Noriyuki; Takayama, Shigeru (1998). "Shinrin-yoku (forest-air bathing and walking) effectively decreases blood glucose levels in diabetic patients". International Journal of Biometeorology. 41 (3): 125–7. Bibcode:1998IJBm...41..125O. PMID 9531856. doi:10.1007/s004840050064. 
  9. ^ Ryan, Richard M.; Weinstein, Netta; Bernstein, Jessey; Brown, Kirk Warren; Mistretta, Louis; Gagné, Marylène (2010). "Vitalizing effects of being outdoors and in nature". Journal of Environmental Psychology. 30 (2): 159–68. doi:10.1016/j.jenvp.2009.10.009. INIST:22695337. 
  10. ^ Bratman, Gregory N.; Daily, Gretchen C.; Levy, Benjamin J.; Gross, James J. (2015). "The benefits of nature experience: Improved affect and cognition". Landscape and Urban Planning. 138: 41–50. doi:10.1016/j.landurbplan.2015.02.005. 
  11. ^ Tyrväinen, Liisa; Ojala, Ann; Korpela, Kalevi; Lanki, Timo; Tsunetsugu, Yuko; Kagawa, Takahide (2014). "The influence of urban green environments on stress relief measures: A field experiment". Journal of Environmental Psychology. 38: 1–9. doi:10.1016/j.jenvp.2013.12.005. 
  12. ^ Bratman, Gregory N.; Hamilton, J. Paul; Hahn, Kevin S.; Daily, Gretchen C.; Gross, James J. (2015). "Nature experience reduces rumination and subgenual prefrontal cortex activation". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 112 (28): 8567–72. Bibcode:2015PNAS..112.8567B. PMC 4507237 . PMID 26124129. doi:10.1073/pnas.1510459112. 

Further readingEdit

  • Li, Qing; Nakadai, Ari; Matsushima, Hiroki; Miyazaki, Yoshifumi; Krensky, Alan M.; Kawada, Tomoyuki; Morimoto, Kanehisa (2006). "Phytoncides (Wood Essential Oils) Induce Human Natural Killer Cell Activity". Immunopharmacology and Immunotoxicology. 28 (2): 319–33. PMID 16873099. doi:10.1080/08923970600809439. 
  • Li, Q; Morimoto, K; Nakadai, A; Inagaki, H; Katsumata, M; Shimizu, T; Hirata, Y; Hirata, K; Suzuki, H (2007). "Forest bathing enhances human natural killer activity and expression of anti-cancer proteins". International journal of immunopathology and pharmacology. 20 (2 Suppl 2): 3–8. PMID 17903349. 
  • Li, Q; Morimoto, K; Kobayashi, M; Inagaki, H; Katsumata, M; Hirata, Y; Hirata, K; Suzuki, H; Li, YJ (2008). "Visiting a forest, but not a city, increases human natural killer activity and expression of anti-cancer proteins". International journal of immunopathology and pharmacology. 21 (1): 117–27. PMID 18336737. 
  • Li, Q; Morimoto, K; Kobayashi, M; Inagaki, H; Katsumata, M; Hirata, Y; Hirata, K; Shimizu, T; Li, YJ (2008). "A forest bathing trip increases human natural killer activity and expression of anti-cancer proteins in female subjects". Journal of biological regulators and homeostatic agents. 22 (1): 45–55. PMID 18394317. 
  • Li, Qing (2009). "Effect of forest bathing trips on human immune function". Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine. 15 (1): 9–17. PMC 2793341 . PMID 19568839. doi:10.1007/s12199-008-0068-3. 
  • Li, Q; Kobayashi, M; Wakayama, Y; Inagaki, H; Katsumata, M; Hirata, Y; Hirata, K; Shimizu, T; Kawada, T (2009). "Effect of phytoncide from trees on human natural killer cell function". International journal of immunopathology and pharmacology. 22 (4): 951–9. PMID 20074458. 
  • Park, Bum Jin; Yuko Tsunetsugu; Tamami Kasetani; Takahide Kagawa; Yoshifumi Miyazaki (2 May 2010). "The physiological effects of Shinrin-yoku (taking in the forest atmosphere or forest bathing): evidence from field experiments in 24 forests across Japan". Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine. 15 (1): 18–26. PMC 2793346 . PMID 19568835. doi:10.1007/s12199-009-0086-9.