Nature therapy

(Redirected from Forest bathing)

Nature therapy, sometimes referred to as ecotherapy, forest therapy, forest bathing, grounding, earthing, Shinrin-Yoku or Sami Lok, is a practice that describes a broad group of techniques or treatments to use nature to improve mental or physical health.

Spending time in nature has various physiological benefits such as relaxation and stress reduction.[1][2]

HistoryEdit

In the 6th century BCE, Cyrus the Great planted a garden in the middle of a city to increase human health.[3] In the 16th century CE, Paracelsus wrote: "The art of healing comes from nature, not from the physician."[4] Scientists in the 1950s looked into why people chose to spend time in nature.[5] The term Shinrin-yoku (森林浴) or forest bathing was coined by the head of the Japanese Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry, and Fisheries, Tomohide Akiyama, in 1982 to encourage more visitors to forests.[3][6][7][8][9]

Health effectsEdit

MoodEdit

120 minutes in nature weekly could improve health and well-being.[10] As little as five minutes in a natural setting, improves mood, self-esteem, and motivation.[11] Nature therapy probably has a benefit in reducing stress and improving a person's mood.[12][13] People exposed to nature are also more cooperative and pleasant compared to those who are not.[14]

Forest therapy has been linked to some physiological benefits as indicated by neuroimaging and the Profile of mood states psychological test.[15]

Horticulture therapy has been linked to general well-being by boosting positive mood and escaping from daily life stressors.[13]

Stress and depressionEdit

Interaction with nature can decrease stress and depression.[1][13][3][16] Forest therapy might help stress management for all age groups.[17]

Social horticulture could help with depression and other mental health problems of PTSD, abuse, lonely elderly people, drug or alcohol addicts, blind people and other people with special needs.[18] Nature therapy could also improve self-management, self-esteem, social relations and skills, socio-political awareness and employability.[19] Nature therapy could reduce aggression and improve relationship skills.[20]

This is especially true due to the mental health damages COVID-19 brought. Nature therapy had significant results when it came to reducing stress, anxiety, and depression influenced by COVID-19.[21]

Other possible benefitsEdit

Nature therapy could help with general medical recovery, pain reduction, Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, dementia, obesity, and vitamin D deficiency.[22] Interactions with nature environments enhance social connections, stewardship, sense of place, and increase environmental participation.[23] Connecting with nature also addresses needs such as intellectual capacity, emotional bonding, creativity, and imagination.[24] Overall, there seems to be benefits to time spent in nature including memory, cognitive flexibility, and attention control.[25]

Research also suggests that childhood experience in nature are crucial for children in their daily lives as it contributes to several developmental outcomes and various domains of their well-being. Essentially, these experiences also foster an intrinsic care for nature.[26]

CriticismEdit

A 2012 systematic review study showed inconclusive results related to the methodology used in studies.[27] Spending time in forests demonstrated positive health effects, but not enough to generate clinical practice guidelines or demonstrate causality.[28] Additionally, there are concerns from researchers expressing that time spent in nature as a form of regenerative therapy is highly personal and entirely unpredictable.[5] Nature can be harmed in the process of human interaction.[5]

GroundingEdit

Grounding, or earthing, is a pseudoscientific practice that involves people grounding themselves using devices by touching the earth or removing shoes.[29][30] People who ground themselves believe that they have been exposed to high levels of electromagnetic radiation.[31] Possible changes in mood could be due to a placebo effect.[32]

Governmental supportEdit

In Finland, researchers recommend five hours a month in nature to reduce depression, alcoholism, and suicide.[4] Forest therapy has state-backing in Japan.[17] South Korea has a nature therapy program for firefighters with post-traumatic stress disorder.[4] Canadian physicians can also "prescribe nature" to patients with mental and physical health problems encouraging them to get into nature more.[33]

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b Schantz P. 2022. Can nature really affect our health? A short review of studies. I: Why Cities Need Large Parks – Large Parks in Large Cities, (ed. R. Murray), London: Routledge
  2. ^ Song, Chorong (August 2016). "Physiological Effects of Nature Therapy: A Review of the Research in Japan". International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 13 (8): 781. doi:10.3390/ijerph13080781. PMC 4997467. PMID 27527193 – via EBSCO.
  3. ^ a b c Hansen MM, Jones R, Tocchini K (July 2017). "Shinrin-Yoku (Forest Bathing) and Nature Therapy: A State-of-the-Art Review". International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 14 (8): 851. doi:10.3390/ijerph14080851. PMC 5580555. PMID 28788101.
  4. ^ a b c Williams, Florence (1 January 2016). "This Is Your Brain On Nature". National Geographic. 229 (1): 49, 54–58, 62–63, 66–67.
  5. ^ a b c MacKinnon, J. B. (21 January 2016). "The Problem with Nature Therapy". Nautilus. Retrieved 5 April 2019.
  6. ^ Song, Chorong (August 2016). "Physiological Effects of Nature Therapy: A Review of the Research in Japan". International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 13 (8): 781. doi:10.3390/ijerph13080781. PMC 4997467. PMID 27527193.
  7. ^ O'Donoghue, J. J. (2 May 2018). "Stressed out? Bathing in the woods is just what the doctor ordered". The Japan Times.
  8. ^ Onken, Lisa Simon (1998). "Behavioral therapy development and psychological science: If a tree falls in the forest and no one hears it...". Behavior Therapy. 29 (4): 539–543. doi:10.1016/S0005-7894(98)80049-X.
  9. ^ Plevin, Julia (2018). "From haiku to shinrin-yoku" (PDF). Forest History Today: 17, 18. Retrieved 7 August 2021.
  10. ^ White, Mathew P.; Alcock, Ian; Grellier, James; Wheeler, Benedict W.; Hartig, Terry; Warber, Sara L.; Bone, Angie; Depledge, Michael H.; Fleming, Lora E. (13 June 2019). "Spending at least 120 minutes a week in nature is associated with good health and wellbeing". Scientific Reports. 9 (1): 7730. Bibcode:2019NatSR...9.7730W. doi:10.1038/s41598-019-44097-3. PMC 6565732. PMID 31197192.
  11. ^ Sorgen, Carol. "Nature Therapy (Ecotherapy) Medical Benefits". WebMD. Retrieved 4 June 2020.
  12. ^ Bratman, Gregory N.; Hamilton, J. Paul; Daily, Gretchen C. (February 2012). "The impacts of nature experience on human cognitive function and mental health". Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 1249 (1): 118–136. Bibcode:2012NYASA1249..118B. doi:10.1111/j.1749-6632.2011.06400.x. PMID 22320203. S2CID 10902404.
  13. ^ a b c Cutillo, A.; Rathore, N.; Reynolds, N.; Hilliard, L.; Haines, H.; Whelan, K.; Madan-Swain, A. (2015). "A Literature Review of Nature-Based Therapy and its Application in Cancer Care". Journal of Therapeutic Horticulture. 25 (1): 3–15. JSTOR 24865255.
  14. ^ Zelenski, John M.; Dopko, Raelyne L.; Capaldi, Colin A. (1 June 2015). "Cooperation is in our nature: Nature exposure may promote cooperative and environmentally sustainable behavior". Journal of Environmental Psychology. 42: 24–31. doi:10.1016/j.jenvp.2015.01.005. ISSN 0272-4944.
  15. ^ Copeland CS. The Forest As Physician: Shinrin Yoku. Healthcare Journal of Baton Rouge. Nov-Dec 2017
  16. ^ Tester-Jones, Michelle; White, Mathew P.; Elliott, Lewis R.; Weinstein, Netta; Grellier, James; Economou, Theo; Bratman, Gregory N.; Cleary, Anne; Gascon, Mireia; Korpela, Kalevi M.; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark (6 November 2020). "Results from an 18 country cross-sectional study examining experiences of nature for people with common mental health disorders". Scientific Reports. 10 (1): 19408. doi:10.1038/s41598-020-75825-9. ISSN 2045-2322. PMC 7648621. PMID 33159132.
  17. ^ a b Rajoo, Keeren Sundara (June 2020). "The physiological and psychosocial effects of forest therapy: A systematic review". Urban For Urban Green. 1 (2): 64–74. doi:10.1016/j.ufug.2020.126744. S2CID 219966519.
  18. ^ Chalquist, Craig (June 2009). "A Look at the Ecotherapy Research Evidence". Ecopsychology. 1 (2): 64–74. doi:10.1089/eco.2009.0003.
  19. ^ Pedretti-Burls, Ambra (2007). "Ecotherapy: a therapeutic and educative model" (PDF). Journal of Mediterranean Ecology. 8: 19–25.
  20. ^ Phillips, Lindsey (May 2018). "Using Nature as a Therapeutic Partner". Counseling Today. 60 (11): 26–33.
  21. ^ Sundara Rajoo, Keeren; Singh Karam, Daljit; Abdu, Arifin; Rosli, Zamri; James Gerusu, Geoffery (November 2021). "Addressing psychosocial issues caused by the COVID-19 lockdown: Can urban greeneries help?". Urban For. Urban Green. 65: 127340. doi:10.1016/j.ufug.2021.127340. ISSN 1618-8667. PMC 8423708. PMID 34512230.
  22. ^ Summers, James K.; Vivian, Deborah N. (3 August 2018). "Ecotherapy – A Forgotten Ecosystem Service: A Review". Frontiers in Psychology. 9: 1389. doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2018.01389. PMC 6085576. PMID 30123175.
  23. ^ Biedenweg, Kelly; Scott, Ryan P.; Scott, Tyler A. (1 June 2017). "How does engaging with nature relate to life satisfaction? Demonstrating the link between environment-specific social experiences and life satisfaction". Journal of Environmental Psychology. 50: 112–124. doi:10.1016/j.jenvp.2017.02.002. ISSN 0272-4944.
  24. ^ Humberstone, Barbara; Prince, Heather; Henderson, Karla A. (19 November 2015). Routledge International Handbook of Outdoor Studies. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-317-66652-3.
  25. ^ Schertz, Kathryn E.; Berman, Marc G. (October 2019). "Understanding Nature and Its Cognitive Benefits". Current Directions in Psychological Science. 28 (5): 496–502. doi:10.1177/0963721419854100. ISSN 0963-7214. S2CID 197722990.
  26. ^ Adams, Sabirah; Savahl, Shazly (20 October 2017). "Nature as children's space: A systematic review". The Journal of Environmental Education. 48 (5): 291–321. doi:10.1080/00958964.2017.1366160. ISSN 0095-8964. S2CID 148964100.
  27. ^ Kamioka, Hiroharu; Tsutani, Kiichiro; Mutoh, Yoshiteru; Honda, Takuya; Shiozawa, Nobuyoshi; Okada, Shinpei; Park, Sang-Jun; Kitayuguchi, Jun; Kamada, Masamitsu; Okuizumi, Hiroyasu; Handa, Shuichi (26 July 2012). "A systematic review of randomized controlled trials on curative and health enhancement effects of forest therapy". Psychology Research and Behavior Management. 5: 85–95. doi:10.2147/PRBM.S32402. PMC 3414249. PMID 22888281.
  28. ^ Oh, Byeongsang; Lee, Kyung Ju; Zaslawski, Chris; Yeung, Albert; Rosenthal, David; Larkey, Linda; Back, Michael (18 October 2017). "Health and well-being benefits of spending time in forests: systematic review". Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine. 22 (1): 71. doi:10.1186/s12199-017-0677-9. PMC 5664422. PMID 29165173.
  29. ^ Mims, Christopher (7 June 2012). "Your Appliances Are Grounded, So Why Not You?". MIT Technology Review. Retrieved 5 December 2020.
  30. ^ Kaufman, A.B.; Kaufman, J.C. (2019). Pseudoscience: The Conspiracy Against Science. The MIT Press. MIT Press. p. 207. ISBN 978-0-262-53704-9. Retrieved 5 December 2020.
  31. ^ L. Pall, Martin (2016). "Microwave frequency electromagnetic fields (EMFs) produce widespread neuropsychiatric effects including depression". Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy. 75 (Pt B): 43–51. doi:10.1016/j.jchemneu.2015.08.001. PMID 26300312. S2CID 14407921.
  32. ^ Medaris Miller, Anna. "Grounding: Hype or Healing?". US News. Retrieved 20 November 2020.
  33. ^ Forster, Victoria. "Canadian Physicians Can Now Prescribe Nature To Patients". Forbes. Retrieved 14 July 2022.