34°43′23″N 36°42′52″E / 34.723185°N 36.714462°E / 34.723185; 36.714462

The first Battle of Homs was fought in Homs, Syria, on December 10, 1260, between the Ilkhanates of Persia and the forces of Egypt.[1]

1st Battle of Homs

Hulagu and his wife Dokuz Kathun
DateDecember 10, 1260
at Homs
Result Egyptian Victory
Ilkhanate of the Mongol Empire Mamluk Egypt
Ayyubid emirate of Homs
Commanders and leaders
Baidur Al-Afdal Muhammad
Al-Ashraf Musa of Homs
6,000[2][3] ~1,400[4][5]
Casualties and losses
Unknown Unknown

After the historic Egyptian victory over the Ilkhanates at the Battle of Ain Jalut in September 1260, Hulagu Khan of the Ilkhanate had the Ayyubid Sultan of Damascus and other Ayyubid princes executed in revenge, thus effectively ending the dynasty in Syria. However, the defeat at Ain Jalut forced the Ilkhanate armies out of Syria and the Levant.

The main cities of Syria, Aleppo and Damascus were thus left open to Mamluk occupation. But Homs and Hama remained in the possession of minor Ayyubid princes. These princes, rather than the Mamluks of Cairo themselves, actually fought and won the First Battle of Homs.[6]

Due to the open war between Hulagu and his cousin Berke of the Golden Horde during the civil war of the Mongol Empire, the Ilkhanate could only afford to send 6,000 troops back into Syria to retake control of the lands. This expedition was initiated by Ilkhanate generals such as Baidu who was forced to leave Gaza when the Egyptians advanced just before the battle of Ain Jalut.[7] After attacking Aleppo, the force travelled southwards to Homs, but were decisively defeated. This ended the first campaign into Syria by the Ilkhanate, though there were several later incursions, none of which ended with conquests lasting more than a year.

See also edit

Notes edit

  1. ^ Thorau, Peter (1992). The Lion of Egypt: Sultan Baybars I and the Near East in the Thirteenth Century. Longman. ISBN 978-0-582-06822-3.
  2. ^ Waterson, p. 88
  3. ^ Amitai-Preiss, p. 51
  4. ^ Waterson, p. 89
  5. ^ Amitai-Preiss, p. 51
  6. ^ Holt, P. M. - "Mamluks", in Encyclopaedia of Islam. Brill Online. [1]
  7. ^ Reuven Amitai-Preiss-Mongols and Mamluks: the Mamluk-Īlkhānid War, 1260-1281, p.43

Bibliography edit

  • Amitai-Preiss, Reuven (1995) Mongols and Mamluks: The Mamluk-Ilkhanid War, 1260–1281. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. ISBN 978-0-521-46226-6
  • Nicolle, Warlords., p. 117
  • J. J. Saunders, The Mongol Defeat at 'Ain Jalut, in. Muslims and Mongols, (ed. by G.W.Rice), p. 69.
  • Waterson, James (2007) The Knights of Islam: The Wars of the Mamluks. Greenhill Books, London. ISBN 978-1-85367-734-2