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First Battle of Homs

Coordinates: 34°43′23″N 36°42′52″E / 34.723185°N 36.714462°E / 34.723185; 36.714462

The first Battle of Homs was fought on December 10, 1260, between the Ilkhanates of Persia and the forces of Egypt, in Syria.

1st Battle of Homs
DateDecember 10, 1260
Locationat Homs
Result Mamluk Victory
Belligerents
Ilkhanate of the Mongol Empire Mameluke Flag.svg Mamluk Sultanate
Commanders and leaders
Baidu Al-Afdal Muhammad
Al-Ashraf Musa, Emir of Homs
Strength
6,000[1][2] 1,400[3][4]
Casualties and losses
Unknown Unknown
For other battles in the same area but in different years, see Battle of Homs.

After the historic Mamluk victory over the Ilkhanates at the Battle of Ain Jalut in September 1260, Hulagu Khan of the Ilkhanate had the Ayyubid Sultan of Damascus and other Ayyubid princes executed in revenge, thus effectively ending the dynasty in Syria. However, the defeat at Ain Jalut forced the Ilkhanate armies out of Syria and the Levant.

The main cities of Syria, Aleppo and Damascus were thus left open to Mamluk occupation. But Homs and Hama remained in the possession of minor Ayyubid princes. These princes, rather than the Mamluks of Cairo themselves, actually fought and won the First Battle of Homs.[5]

Due to the open war between Hulagu and his cousin Berke of the Golden Horde during the civil war of the Mongol Empire, the Ilkhanate could only afford to send 6,000 troops back into Syria to retake control of the lands. This expedition was initiated by Ilkhanate generals such as Baidu who was forced to leave Gaza when the Mamluks advanced just before the battle of Ain Jalut.[6] After quickly recapturing Aleppo, the force travelled southwards to Homs, but were decisively defeated. This ended the first campaign into Syria by the Ilkhanate, though there were several later incursions, none of which ended with conquests lasting more than a year.

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ Waterson, p. 88
  2. ^ Amitai-Preiss, p. 51
  3. ^ Waterson, p. 89
  4. ^ Amitai-Preiss, p. 51
  5. ^ Holt, P. M. - "Mamluks", in Encyclopaedia of Islam. Brill Online. http://www.brillonline.nl/subscriber/uid=1415/entry?entry=islam_COM-0658&authstatuscode=202
  6. ^ Reuven Amitai-Preiss-Mongols and Mamluks: the Mamluk-Īlkhānid War, 1260-1281, p.43

BibliographyEdit

  • Amitai-Preiss, Reuven (1995) Mongols and Mamluks: The Mamluk-Ilkhanid War, 1260–1281. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. ISBN 978-0-521-46226-6
  • Nicolle, Warlords., p. 117
  • J. J. Saunders, The Mongol Defeat at 'Ain Jalut, in. Muslims and Mongols, (ed. by G.W.Rice), p. 69.
  • Waterson, James (2007) The Knights of Islam: The Wars of the Mamluks. Greenhill Books, London. ISBN 978-1-85367-734-2