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Father-in-law of Europe

King Christian IX with his large family gathered at Fredensborg Palace, painting by Laurits Tuxen from 1883 to 1886

The Father-in-law of Europe is a sobriquet which has been used to refer to two European monarchs of the late 19th and early 20th century: Christian IX of Denmark and Nicholas I of Montenegro, both on account of their children's marriages to foreign princes and princesses. The fact that each was a monarch of moderate or modest power (and thus a marriage would not threaten the delicate balance of power) allowed them to marry some of their many children to heirs of greater fortunes across the continent.

Christian IX of DenmarkEdit

The children of King Christian IX (1818–1906) and Queen Louise (1817–1898) of Denmark included:

Christian IX used to gather his children, children-in-law and grandchildren for the so-called Fredensborg days at Fredensborg Palace north of Copenhagen in the summer time.[1] Christian and Louise's grandchildren included King George V of the United Kingdom, Tsar Nicholas II of Russia, King Constantine I of Greece and both King Haakon VII and his consort, Queen Maud of Norway.

Nicholas I of MontenegroEdit

See alsoEdit


  1. ^ "Christian 9. med familie, 1886". De Danske Kongers Kronologiske Samling. Retrieved 2011-06-23.