Falcataria moluccana

Falcataria moluccana, commonly known as the Moluccan albizia, is a species of fast-growing tree in the legume family, Fabaceae.[3] It is native to the Maluku Islands, New Guinea Island, the Bismarck Archipelago (in Papua New Guinea), and the Solomon Islands. It is cultivated for timber throughout South Asian and Southeast Asian countries. This tree is considered to be invasive in Hawaii, American Samoa and several other island nations in the Pacific and Indian Oceans.[4][5] It is about 30m tall tree in nature with a massive trunk and an open crown.[4]

Moluccan albizia
Starr 070215-4478 Falcataria moluccana.jpg
Specimen at Waiehu, Maui
Scientific classification
Kingdom:
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Species:
F. moluccana
Binomial name
Falcataria moluccana
(Miq.) Barneby & J.W.Grimes
Synonyms
  • Adenanthera falcata L.
  • Adenanthera falcataria L.
  • Adenanthera falcatoria L. [Spelling variant]
  • Albizia eymae Fosberg
  • Albizia falcata sensu auct. Misapplied
  • Albizia falcata (L.) Backer [Spelling variant]
  • Albizia falcata (L.) Backer ex Merr.
  • Albizia falcataria (L.) Fosberg
  • Albizia falcatoria (L.) Fosberg [Spelling variant]
  • Albizia fulva Lane-Poole
  • Albizia fulva C.T. White & Francis
  • Albizia moluccana Miq.
  • Paraserianthes falcataria (L.) I.C.Nielsen
  • Paraserianthes falcataria subsp. falcataria (L.) I.C.Nielsen
  • Paraserianthes falcataria subsp. fulva (Lane-Poole) I.C.Nielsen
  • Paraserianthes falcatoria (L.) I.C.Nielsen [Spelling variant] [2]

Common namesEdit

Falcataria moluccana is cultivated throughout the wet tropical and subtropical regions of the world and so has many common names. These include: albizia (Hawaii), Moluccan albizia, sengon (Java), salawaku (Maluku), jeungjing (Indonesia), ai-samtuco (Tetun, East Timor), , batai (Malaysia), kerosin tree (Pohnpei), sau, Moluccan sau, and falcata (Philippines), Tamaligi (Samoa).

DescriptionEdit

  • Leaves – twice pinnately compound with small leaflets
  • Flowers – creamy white small flowers are faintly fragrant
  • Fruits – pods that fall from the trees when mature.
  • Bark – smooth, light or white colored bark.
  • Wood – light tan with long fibers.
  • Wood density = 280 kg / cubic meter (based on weight and volume at 18% moisture content)[6]
  • Chromosome number 2n = 26.[7]

The tree has become invasive in forests in Hawaii and on other Pacific islands, like New Caledonia.[8][9]

UsesEdit

  • Commercial uses – Falcataria moluccana soft wood is used for make match-sticks, chopsticks, shipping pallets, and wooden boxes. Pulp is used for paper-making.[10] Plywood production and veneer based products have increasingly been an important use for these trees.[6]
  • Traditional uses – Whole tree trunks are carved for sea going canoes. Also used extensively for firewood in East Timor (Timor Leste) and elsewhere.
  • Agroforestry – Grown as coffee shade tree. Inter-cropped with Eucalyptus to add nitrogen. Used for agroforestry with pineapple and other crops in Indonesia.

Insects found on Falcataria moluccanaEdit

In Hawaii the caterpillars of the endemic Hawaiian koa looper (Scotorythra paludicola) has been found to defoliate Falcataria moluccana and complete their development on this invasive tree without the larvae eating the leaves of their native host Acacia koa.[11]

In Borneo the following moth species have been identified as feeding on Falcataria moluccana.[12]

In the broader Indomalayan region the following species have also been found feeding on F. moluccana:

The industrial tree plantation wood Falcataria moluccana was found to be susceptible to the species of drywood termites, Cryptotermes cynocephalus, in trials in the Philippines.[6] This tree species has also been found to be susceptible to the subterranean termite species Coptotermes formosanus in tests conducted in Indonesia[14] and Hawaii.[15] The Formosan subterranean termites consumed 49 ± 4.0 µg/termite/day of F. moluccana wood in the Indonesian Standard (SNI) laboratory tests or 66 ± 6.5 µg/termite/day under the Japanese Standard (JIS) tests for termite susceptibility.[14]

DiseasesEdit

Falcataria moluccana is the primary host of the gall rust fungus Uromycladium falcatarium,[16] and has also been recorded as a host of Uromycladium tepperianum.[17] Both of these gall rust species cause severe damage throughout all stages of the tree's growth.

Two Actinomycetales bacteria Streptomyces asiaticus and S. cangkringensis have been isolated from the rhizosphere soil surrounding F. moluccana in Indonesia.[18][19][20] Although at least 10 species of Streptomyces are plant pathogens it is unclear if these two species have any negative impacts on the roots or other tissues of this tree.

GalleryEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b The Legume Phylogeny Working Group (LPWG). (2017). "A new subfamily classification of the Leguminosae based on a taxonomically comprehensive phylogeny". Taxon. 66 (1): 44–77. doi:10.12705/661.3.
  2. ^ "Falcataria moluccana (Miq.) Barneby & J.W.Grimes — the Plant List".
  3. ^ Common Forest Trees: Albizia falcataria http://www.ctahr.hawaii.edu/forestry/trees/CommonTreesHI/CFT_Albizia_falcataria.pdf Archived 2015-09-23 at the Wayback Machine
  4. ^ a b "Falcataria moluccana - Moluccan Albizia, Molucca Albizia, Peacocksplume, Batai, Bataiwood, Moluccan Sau - Hawaiian Plants and Tropical Flowers".
  5. ^ "GISD".
  6. ^ a b c Romano, A.D., & Acda, M.N. 2017. Feeding preference of the drywood termite Cryptotermes cynocephalus (Kalotermitidae) against industrial tree plantation species in the Philippines. Journal of Asia-Pacific Entomology 20: 1161–1164. https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aspen.2017.08.026
  7. ^ "Albizia falcata". Plants for a Future. 13054888.
  8. ^ Hughes, R.F., Johnson, M.T. & Uowolo, A., 2011. The invasive alien tree Falcataria moluccana: its impacts and management. XIII International Symposium on Biological Control of Weeds. Sept. 11–16, 2011 – Waikoloa, Hawaii, USA. http://www.invasive.org/proceedings/pdfs/Hughes.pdf
  9. ^ Hequet, Vanessa (2009). Les espèces exotiques envahissantes de Nouvelle-Calédonie (PDF) (in French). p. 17.
  10. ^ "Falcataria moluccana".
  11. ^ W.P. Haines, K.E. Barton, and P. Conant (2013). "Defoliation of the invasive tree Falcataria moluccana on Hawaii Island by the native koa looper moth (Geometridae: Scotorythra paludicola), and evaluation of five Fabaceous trees as larval hostplants" (PDF). Proceedings of the Hawaiian Entomological Society. 45: 129–139.CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
  12. ^ Holloway, Jeremy Daniel. "Moths of Borneo".
  13. ^ a b "nhm.ac.uk Caterpillar Host-Plant Database".
  14. ^ a b Arinana, K. Tsunoda, E.N. Herliyana, and Y.S. Hadi (2012). "Termite-susceptible species of wood for inclusion as a reference in Indonesian Standardized laboratory testing". Insects. 3 (2): 396–401. doi:10.3390/insects3020396. PMC 4553599. PMID 26466532.CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link) DOI 10.3390/insects3020396
  15. ^ J.K. Grace, D.M. Ewart, C.H.M. Tome (1996). "Termite resistance of wood species grown in Hawaii". Forest Products Journal. 46 (10): 57–60.CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
  16. ^ C. Doungsa-ard, A.R. McTaggart, A.D.W. Geering, T.U. Dalisay, J. Ray, R.G. Shivas (2015). "Uromycladium falcatarium sp. nov., the cause of gall rust on Paraserianthes falcataria in south-east Asia". Australasian Plant Pathology. 44: 25–30. doi:10.1007/s13313-014-0301-z. S2CID 6055244.CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link) DOI 10.1007/s13313-014-0301-z
  17. ^ S.M. Widyastuti, Harjono, and Z.A. Surya (2013). "Initial infection of Falcataria moluccana leaves and Acacia mangium phyllodes by Uromycladium tepperianum fungi in a laboratory trial". JMHT (Jurnal Manajemen Hutan Tropika – Journal of Tropical Forest Management). 19 (3): 187–193. doi:10.7226/jtfm.19.3.187.CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
  18. ^ LPSN bacterio.net
  19. ^ UniProt
  20. ^ Deutsche Sammlung von Mikroorganismen und Zellkulturen [1]

External linksEdit

  Media related to Falcataria moluccana at Wikimedia Commons   Data related to Falcataria moluccana at Wikispecies