Falcataria falcata (syns. Albizia falcata, Falcataria moluccana and Paraserianthes falcataria), commonly known as the Moluccan albizia, is a species of fast-growing tree in the family Fabaceae.[3] It is native to the Maluku Islands, New Guinea, the Bismarck Archipelago, and the Solomon Islands. It is cultivated for timber throughout South Asian and Southeast Asian countries. This tree is considered to be invasive in Hawaii, American Samoa and several other island nations in the Pacific and Indian Oceans.[4][5] It reaches about 30 m (100 ft) tall in nature, and has a massive trunk and an open crown.[4]

Falcataria falcata
Specimen at Waiehu, Maui
Scientific classification Edit this classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Tracheophytes
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Eudicots
Clade: Rosids
Order: Fabales
Family: Fabaceae
Subfamily: Caesalpinioideae
Clade: Mimosoid clade
Genus: Falcataria
F. falcata
Binomial name
Falcataria falcata
  • Adenanthera falcata L.
  • Adenanthera falcataria L.
  • Albizia eymae Fosberg
  • Albizia falcata (L.) Backer
  • Albizia falcataria (L.) Fosberg
  • Albizia fulva C.T.White & W.D.Francis ex Lane-Poole
  • Albizia moluccana Miq.
  • Falcataria moluccana (Miq.) Barneby & J.W.Grimes
  • Paraserianthes falcataria (L.) I.C.Nielsen
  • Paraserianthes falcataria subsp. fulva (C.T.White & W.D.Francis ex Lane-Poole) I.C.Nielsen
  • Paraserianthes falcataria subsp. solomonensis I.C.Nielsen
  • Pithecellobium falcatum (L.) Kosterm.
  • Paraserianthes falcatoria (L.) I.C.Nielsen (Spelling variant)[1]

Common names edit

Falcataria falcata is cultivated throughout the wet tropical and subtropical regions of the world and so has many common names. These include: albizia (Hawaii), Moluccan albizia, sengon (Java), salawaku (Maluku), jeungjing (Indonesia), ai-samtuco (Tetun, Timor-Leste), batai (Malaysia), kerosin tree (Pohnpei), sau, Moluccan sau, falcata (Philippines), and Tamaligi (Samoa).

Description edit

  • Leaves – twice pinnately compound with small leaflets
  • Flowers – creamy white small flowers are faintly fragrant
  • Fruits – pods that fall from the trees when mature.
  • Bark – smooth, light or white colored bark.
  • Wood – light tan with long fibers.
  • Wood density=280 kg / cubic meter (based on weight and volume at 18% moisture content)[6]
  • Chromosome number 2n=26.[7]

The tree has become invasive in forests in Hawaii and on other Pacific islands, like New Caledonia.[8][9]

Uses edit

  • Commercial uses – Falcataria falcata softwood is used to make match-sticks, chopsticks, shipping pallets, and wooden boxes. The pulp is used for paper-making.[10] Plywood production and veneer based products have increasingly been an important use for these trees.[6]
  • Traditional uses – Whole tree trunks are carved for seagoing canoes. Also used extensively for firewood in Timor-Leste and elsewhere.
  • Agroforestry – Grown as a coffee shade tree. Inter-cropped with Eucalyptus to add nitrogen. Used for agroforestry with pineapple and other crops in Indonesia and Timor-Leste.

Insects found on Falcataria falcata edit

In Hawaii the caterpillars of the endemic Hawaiian koa looper (Scotorythra paludicola) has been found to defoliate Falcataria falcata and complete their development on this invasive tree without the larvae eating the leaves of their native host Acacia koa.[11]

In Borneo the following moth species have been identified as feeding on Falcataria falcata.[12]

In the broader Indomalayan region the following species have also been found feeding on F. falcata:

The industrial tree plantation wood Falcataria falcata was found to be susceptible to the species of drywood termites, Cryptotermes cynocephalus, in trials in the Philippines.[6] This tree species has also been found to be susceptible to the subterranean termite species Coptotermes formosanus in tests conducted in Indonesia[14] and Hawaii.[15] The Formosan subterranean termites consumed 49 ± 4.0 μg/termite/day of F. falcata wood in the Indonesian Standard (SNI) laboratory tests or 66 ± 6.5 μg/termite/day under the Japanese Standard (JIS) tests for termite susceptibility.[14]

Diseases edit

Falcataria falcata is the primary host of the gall rust fungus Uromycladium falcatarium,[16] and has also been recorded as a host of Uromycladium tepperianum.[17] Both of these gall rust species cause severe damage throughout all stages of the tree's growth.

Two Actinomycetales bacteria Streptomyces asiaticus and S. cangkringensis have been isolated from the rhizosphere soil surrounding F. falcata in Indonesia.[18][19][20] Although at least 10 species of Streptomyces are plant pathogens it is unclear if these two species have any negative impacts on the roots or other tissues of this tree.

Gallery edit

References edit

  1. ^ "Falcataria moluccana (Miq.) Barneby & J.W.Grimes — the Plant List".
  2. ^ "Falcataria falcata (L.) Greuter & R.Rankin". Plants of the World Online. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Retrieved 25 March 2022.
  3. ^ Common Forest Trees: Albizia falcataria http://www.ctahr.hawaii.edu/forestry/trees/CommonTreesHI/CFT_Albizia_falcataria.pdf Archived 2015-09-23 at the Wayback Machine
  4. ^ a b "Falcataria moluccana - Moluccan Albizia, Molucca Albizia, Peacocksplume, Batai, Bataiwood, Moluccan Sau - Hawaiian Plants and Tropical Flowers".
  5. ^ "GISD". Archived from the original on 2016-03-05. Retrieved 2015-06-10.
  6. ^ a b c Romano, A.D., & Acda, M.N. 2017. Feeding preference of the drywood termite Cryptotermes cynocephalus (Kalotermitidae) against industrial tree plantation species in the Philippines. Journal of Asia-Pacific Entomology 20: 1161–1164. https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aspen.2017.08.026
  7. ^ "Albizia falcata". Plants for a Future. 13054888.
  8. ^ Hughes, R.F., Johnson, M.T. & Uowolo, A., 2011. The invasive alien tree Falcataria moluccana: its impacts and management. XIII International Symposium on Biological Control of Weeds. Sept. 11–16, 2011 – Waikoloa, Hawaii, USA. http://www.invasive.org/proceedings/pdfs/Hughes.pdf
  9. ^ Hequet, Vanessa (2009). Les espèces exotiques envahissantes de Nouvelle-Calédonie (PDF) (in French). p. 17.
  10. ^ "Falcataria moluccana".
  11. ^ W.P. Haines; K.E. Barton; P. Conant (2013). "Defoliation of the invasive tree Falcataria moluccana on Hawaii Island by the native koa looper moth (Geometridae: Scotorythra paludicola), and evaluation of five Fabaceous trees as larval hostplants" (PDF). Proceedings of the Hawaiian Entomological Society. 45: 129–139.
  12. ^ Holloway, Jeremy Daniel. "Moths of Borneo".
  13. ^ a b "nhm.ac.uk Caterpillar Host-Plant Database".
  14. ^ a b Arinana, K. Tsunoda; E.N. Herliyana; Y.S. Hadi (2012). "Termite-susceptible species of wood for inclusion as a reference in Indonesian Standardized laboratory testing". Insects. 3 (2): 396–401. doi:10.3390/insects3020396. PMC 4553599. PMID 26466532. DOI 10.3390/insects3020396
  15. ^ J.K. Grace; D.M. Ewart; C.H.M. Tome (1996). "Termite resistance of wood species grown in Hawaii". Forest Products Journal. 46 (10): 57–60.
  16. ^ C. Doungsa-ard; A.R. McTaggart; A.D.W. Geering; T.U. Dalisay; J. Ray; R.G. Shivas (2015). "Uromycladium falcatarium sp. nov., the cause of gall rust on Paraserianthes falcataria in south-east Asia". Australasian Plant Pathology. 44: 25–30. doi:10.1007/s13313-014-0301-z. S2CID 6055244. DOI 10.1007/s13313-014-0301-z
  17. ^ S.M. Widyastuti; Harjono; Z.A. Surya (2013). "Initial infection of Falcataria moluccana leaves and Acacia mangium phyllodes by Uromycladium tepperianum fungi in a laboratory trial". JMHT (Jurnal Manajemen Hutan Tropika – Journal of Tropical Forest Management). 19 (3): 187–193. doi:10.7226/jtfm.19.3.187.
  18. ^ "LPSN bacterio.net". Archived from the original on 2015-09-23. Retrieved 2017-09-15.
  19. ^ UniProt
  20. ^ Deutsche Sammlung von Mikroorganismen und Zellkulturen [1]

External links edit