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In functional analysis, an F-space is a vector space V over the real or complex numbers together with a metric d : V × VR so that

  1. Scalar multiplication in V is continuous with respect to d and the standard metric on R or C.
  2. Addition in V is continuous with respect to d.
  3. The metric is translation-invariant; i.e., d(x + a, y + a) = d(x, y) for all x, y and a in V
  4. The metric space (V, d) is complete.

The operation x ↦ ||x|| := d(0,x) is called an F-norm, although in general an F-norm is not required to be complete. By translation-invariance, the metric is recoverable from the F-norm. Thus, a real or complex F-space is equivalently a real or complex vector space equipped with a complete F-norm.

Some authors call these spaces Fréchet spaces, but usually the term is reserved for locally convex F-spaces. The metric may or may not necessarily be part of the structure on an F-space; many authors only require that such a space be metrizable in a manner that satisfies the above properties.



All Banach spaces and Fréchet spaces are F-spaces. In particular, a Banach space is an F-space with an additional requirement that d(αx, 0) = |α|⋅d(x, 0).[1]

The Lp spaces are F-spaces for all p ≥ 0 and for p ≥ 1 they are locally convex and thus Fréchet spaces and even Banach spaces.

Example 1Edit

  is an F-space. It admits no continuous seminorms and no continuous linear functionals — it has trivial dual space.

Example 2Edit

Let   be the space of all complex valued Taylor series


on the unit disc   such that


then (for 0 < p < 1)   are F-spaces under the p-norm:


In fact,   is a quasi-Banach algebra. Moreover, for any   with   the map   is a bounded linear (multiplicative functional) on  .

See alsoEdit


  1. ^ Dunford N., Schwartz J.T. (1958). Linear operators. Part I: general theory. Interscience publishers, inc., New York. p. 59
  • Rudin, Walter (1966), Real & Complex Analysis, McGraw-Hill, ISBN 0-07-054234-1