Eskandar Firouz

Eskandar Firouz ((1926-08-07)August 7, 1926 – (2020-03-04)March 4, 2020) was an Iranian environmentalist and politician. He was the first Director of the Department of Environment in Iran. He developed Iran's ecological conservation and management program. Eskandar Firouz is recognized as the father of environmental protection and conservation in Iran.

Eskandar Firouz
Eskandar Firouz 2 (cropped).JPG
In 2006
Born(1926-08-07)August 7, 1926
DiedMarch 4, 2020(2020-03-04) (aged 93)
Alma mater
OccupationConservational Environmentalist, First Director of the Department of Environment in Iran
Spouse(s)Iran Ala

Early lifeEdit

Eskandar Firouz was born in 1926 in Shiraz to Mohammad Hossein Mirza Firouz (1894–1983), a Qajar prince.His paternal grandfather was Abdolhossein Farmanfarma (1857–1939).[1]

He did his education outside Iran, first in Germany, then in the United States (Lawrenceville Preparatory School) and later at Yale University.[2]


As an environmental conservationist, in 1971, he championed the formation of Iran's Department of Environment.In his tenure as the Director of DOE,Iran developed and adopted the Environmental Protection Law, which is still in force.[3]

Firouz helped in creating the national parks, nature reserves, wildlife refuges and protected areas in Iran.He was appointed as the vice-president at the United Nations Conference on the Human Environment, held in Stockholm in 1972.[4] Firouz was also a member of the presiding board of the International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) in 1973–75.[5] In 1977, he was elected President of the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN), a position that he never filled as the Shah forced the resignation of the government during the Revolution.[6]

Mr Firouz was one of the three founding fathers of the Convention on Wetlands of International Importance – the “Ramsar Convention”.[7]

Personal lifeEdit

Firouz married Iran Ala who is the daughter of the late Hossein Ala (1881–1964), Iran's prime minister from 1955 to 1957. He had two daughters Anahita and Azar. He died on March 4, 2020 at the age of 93.

Notable worksEdit

  • The Complete Fauna of Iran[8]
  • Environment Iran
  • The wetlands and waterfowl of Iran
  • Memoirs of Eskandar Firouz


  1. ^ Life, Kayhan (2020-03-11). "OBITUARY: Eskandar Firouz, Founder of Iran's Department of Environment, Dies at 93". KAYHAN LIFE. Retrieved 2020-03-18.
  2. ^ Retrieved 2020-03-18. Missing or empty |title= (help)
  3. ^ Firouz, Eskandar; Secretary-General (October 1968). "Field studies in Iran". Biological Conservation. 1 (1): 88. doi:10.1016/0006-3207(68)90036-0. ISSN 0006-3207.
  4. ^ "Eskandar Firouz, father of Iran's environment protection, dies at 93". Tehran Times. 2020-03-04. Retrieved 2020-03-18.
  5. ^ (PDF) Missing or empty |title= (help)
  6. ^ "Iranian environmentalism: Its origins and evolution". Atlantic Council. 2019-06-20. Retrieved 2020-03-18.
  7. ^ Senior, Kerrine Olivia McDonald, author. An examination of the implementation of the Cartagena (wider Caribbean), Marpol and Ramsar Conventions in the Turks and Caicos Islands, the Cayman Islands and Jamaica. OCLC 939923893.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  8. ^ Missing or empty |title= (help)