The Erdapfel (German for 'earth apple'; pronounced [ˈeːɐ̯tˌʔapfl̩] ) is a terrestrial globe produced by Martin Behaim from 1490 to 1492. The Erdapfel is the oldest surviving terrestrial globe. It is constructed of a laminated linen ball in two halves, reinforced with wood and overlaid with a map painted on gores by Georg Glockendon.[1] The map was drawn on paper, which was pasted on a layer of parchment around the globe.[2]

Behaim-Globe, Germanisches Nationalmuseum, Nuremberg, height 133 cm (52 in)
Behaim’s Erdapfel
Modern recreation of the gores of the Erdapfel
Oceanic area described on the Martin Behaim globe.

The Americas are not included, as Columbus returned to Spain no sooner than March 1493. The globe shows an enlarged Eurasian continent and an empty ocean between Europe and Asia. The mythical Saint Brendan's Island is included. Cipangu (Japan) is oversized and well south of its true position; Martellus's map is followed in developing an enormous phantom peninsula east of the Golden Chersonese (Malaysia).

The idea to call the globe "apple" may be related to the Reichsapfel ("Imperial Apple", Globus cruciger) which was also kept in Nuremberg along with the Imperial Regalia (Reichskleinodien). The name is not related to the modern meaning of Erdapfel in southern Germany and Austria, which is "potato"—potatoes had not yet been brought from America to Europe.

From its creation until early in the 16th century, it stood in a reception room in the Nuremberg town hall. After that time, it was held by the Behaim family. In 1907, it was transferred to the Germanic Museum in Nuremberg. In 1992, it was moved for some time to the Vienna University of Technology, to be studied at high resolution by the Behaim Digital Globe Project.[3] In 2011, a second digitalization by the German National Museum began.[4]

Terrestrial globes are known to have been made from antiquity, such as The Globe of Crates. None are known to have survived, even as fragments. A celestial globe, part of the Farnese Atlas, has survived from the second century AD.

In 2023, Erdapfel was admitted to UNESCO's Memory of the World.[5]

See also edit

Cartography Hunt–Lenox Globe
Early world maps International Coronelli Society for the Study of Globes
Globe Museum, Vienna Ostrich Egg Globe
History of cartography Theatrum Orbis Terrarum

References edit

  1. ^ "Der Behaim-Globus in Nürnberg" (in German). Bayern-online.
  2. ^ Hering, Bernd (1992). "Die Herstellungstechnik des Behaim-Globus: Neue Ergebnisse". In Bott, Gerhard; Willers, Johannes K. W. (eds.). Focus Behaim-Globus (in German). Vol. 1. Nürnberg: Germanisches Nationalmuseum Nürnberg. pp. 289–300. OCLC 1075379003.
  3. ^ Dorffner, Lionel (1996). "Der digitale Behaim-Globus – Visualisierung und Vermessung des historisch wertvollen Originals". Cartographica Helvetica (in German). 14. Retrieved 8 June 2023.
  4. ^ Nationalmuseum, Germanisches. "Digitalisierung Behaim Globus | GERMANISCHES NATIONALMUSEUM". www.gnm.de (in German). Retrieved 18 May 2023.
  5. ^ "UNESCO-Weltdokumentenerbe Behaim-Globus". Deutsche UNESCO-Kommission (in German). Retrieved 18 May 2023.

Further reading edit

External links edit