Epigraphy of Abkhazia

Epigraphy of Abkhazia comprises all the epigraphic monuments (inscriptions written on hard material) inside Abkhazia,[1] Georgia. They are all in Georgian, Greek, Ottoman and Latin languages. The number of the Georgian epigraphic monuments is more than 100 and they date from the 8th century AD. The Greek inscriptions are up to 22 and they mostly date before the 9th century AD. Out of the Ottoman Turkish inscriptions, the oldest one is from 1598. Out of the Georgian inscriptions up to 15 ones mention the kings of Abkhazia. About 30 inscriptions are seen on icons from Bedia, Bichvinta, Tsebelda and Ilori churches.

According to their exterior sign known Georgian inscriptions can be divided into three groups: lapidary (about 50), mural (about 30) and embossed inscriptions (about 20).[2]

List of the epigraphic monuments of AbkhaziaEdit

Georgian inscriptionsEdit

Type Description Inscription site Location Date Image
Lapidary Ruined church Samato Hill, Gudauta Municipality 11th c.
Lapidary Khopi Saint Nicholas Church Khopi, Gudauta Municipality 1156–1178  
Lapidary multiple Ruined church of Msygkhua Msigkhua Hill near Primorskoe, Gudauta Mun. 9th c.
Mural Lykhny Church Lykhny, Gudauta Municipality  
Lapidary mentions archangels Michael and Gabriel table in Anukhva Archangels church Anukhva, Gudauta Municipality 12th c.
Lapidary mentions Giorgi Basilisdze column in Anukhva Archangels church Anukhva 11th c.
Lapidary mentions five saints Anukhva Archangels church Anukhva 11th c.
Embossed excavated by colonel Tsilosani in 1885–86 Iron and copped objects Kelasuri right bank, Sokhumi Municipality
Lapidary mentions king Bagrat Besleti Bridge Besleti, Sokhumi Municipality 11th c. – 12th c.
Lapidary "st. Theodore, have mercy on Michael" Chapel iconostasis Oktomberi (Olginskoe), Tsebelda district, Gulripshi Municipality 11th c.
Embossed asks for mercy on Mariam St. Catherine icon Achandara (Poltavskoe), Tsebelda district, Gulripshi Municipality
mentions Abulasan Iobisdze metal slab or an icon inside a chapel Achandara (Poltavskoe), Tsebelda district, Gulripshi Municipality 13th c.
Embossed Dedicated to st. George metal slab Kavakluk valley, Tsebelda, Gulripshi 13th c. – 14th c.
Lapidary tombstone Kavakluk valley, Tsebelda, Gulripshi 13th c. – 14th c.
Lapidary mentions Luka Martineva stone plate Tsebelda 14th c. or 12th. c.[3]
St. George church Tsebelda 12th c. – 13th c.
Lapidary mentions Ozbeg Dadiani Chlou church Chlou, Ochamchire municipality 1445–1452
Lapidary mentions Grigol Guzanisdze bishop of Mokvi Mokvi Cathedral Mokvi, Ochamchire municipality 12th c.
Lapidary mentions Raba and Nugamtsira Gudava church Gudava, Gali Municipality 15th c.
Lapidary "Gregory, the chief mason" (გრიგოლ გალატოზთუხუცესი)[4] Dikhazurga Saint Barbara Church Dikhazurga, Gali district 11th c.  


Greek inscriptionsEdit

Type Description Inscription site Location Date Image
Bronze A treaty or a honorific decree. The inscription survived in small fragments.[5] The remains of the largest building uncovered at Eshera (possibly the civic centre of Dioscurias)[5] Found in Eshera 4th c. BC[5]
Lapidary Portraits of "three members of the elite of the Abasgi (?)" and their names: Ninas, Varnokhes, and Thyezanes.[6] Found near Sukhumi Probably 2nd c. AD[6]
Lapidary Nikopsis fortress (New Athos) 10th c.  
Lapidary Nikopsis fortress (New Athos) 11th c.  


Other inscriptionsEdit

Type Description Inscription site Location Date Image
Lapidary A Latin inscription containing letters LEG, possibly a building-inscription. The presence of the names of Hadrian and Arrian is not certain.[7] Found during the excavations of the Roman fort in Sukhumi[7] Found in Sukhumi, now lost.[7]


Map of the Georgian LapidaryEdit

 
 
Msigkhua Mount near Primorskoe
 
Samato Hill
 
Anukhva
 
Khopi
 
Gudava
 
Tsebelda
 
Chlou (Jvari Pat'iosani)
 
Mokvi
 
Bedia
 
Dikhazurga
 
Tskelikari
 
Besleti
 
Ilori
 
Tsarche
Epigraphy of Abkhazia (Abkhazia)

External linksEdit

  • "Грузинские лапидарные надписи в Абхазии". Наша Абхазия. Retrieved 2020-02-10.
  • Heritage of Georgia, Apkhazeti - short review, Tbilisi, 2018 ISBN 978-9941-8-0548-6

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Abkhazia is the subject of a territorial dispute between the Republic of Abkhazia and Georgia. The Republic of Abkhazia unilaterally declared independence on 23 July 1992, but Georgia continues to claim it as part of its own sovereign territory and designates it as a territory occupied by Russia. Abkhazia has received formal recognition as an independent state from 7 out of 193 United Nations member states, 1 of which has subsequently withdrawn its recognition.
  2. ^ Akhaladze, Lia (2008). "For classification of some issues of Abkhazia's epigraphic monuments" (PDF). Kartvelian Heritage. 12.
  3. ^ Valeri Silogava, დასავლეთ საქართველოს X-XVIII სს ქართული ლაპიდარული წარწერები როგორც საისტორიო წყარო, 1972
  4. ^ Kapanadze, Salome, ed. (2007). Georgian Cultural Heritage. Book 1: Abkhazeti. Tbilisi: Ministry of Education and Culture of Abkhazia. p. 109.
  5. ^ a b c David, Braund (1994). Georgia in Antiquity. A History of Colchis and Transcaucasian Iberia 550 BC AD 562. Calendon Press. pp. 142–143. ISBN 0198144733.
  6. ^ a b David, Braund (1994). Georgia in Antiquity. A History of Colchis and Transcaucasian Iberia 550 BC AD 562. Calendon Press. p. 196. ISBN 0198144733.
  7. ^ a b c David, Braund (1994). Georgia in Antiquity. A History of Colchis and Transcaucasian Iberia 550 BC AD 562. Calendon Press. pp. 194–195. ISBN 0198144733.