Environmental Working Group
The Environmental Working Group (EWG) is an American environmental organization that specializes in research and advocacy in the areas of toxic chemicals, agricultural subsidies, public lands, and corporate accountability. EWG is a non-profit organization (501(c)(3)) whose mission, according to its website, is "to use the power of public information to protect public health and the environment".
Founded in 1993 by Ken Cook and Richard Wiles, EWG is headquartered in Washington, D.C. in the United States. A sister organization, the EWG Action Fund, is the lobbying arm (a 501(c)(4) organization) of the organization and was founded in 2002.
Some claims made by EWG have been criticized by the scientific community and others as not accurate. There are some potential conflicts of interest with the groups funding and the products they recommend consumers use and do not use.
Issue areas and projectsEdit
Toxic chemicals and human healthEdit
EWG has created a cosmetics safety database which indexes and scores products based on their ingredients. Their Guide to Pesticides in Produce lists 44 fruits and vegetables based on the number of pesticides that they were found to contain according to United States Department of Agriculture data. A series of studies testing for the presence of chemicals in people's bodies is known as body burden. The organization has also constructed a national database of tap water testing results from public water utilities. Their work has extended to a variety of other chemicals, including bisphenol A, perchlorate, mercury, flame retardants, and arsenic in treated wood.
In July 2016 they opposed the Safe and Accurate Food Labeling Act of 2015, referred to by GMO-labelling advocates as the DARK (Deny Americans The Right To Know) Act. EWG publishes a database of agricultural subsidies and their recipients. The EWG Action Fund advocates for farm bill reform in the form of decreased disaster payments and subsidies for commodity crops, and increased funding for nutrition programs, conservation, specialty crops (i.e. fruits and vegetables), and organic agriculture.
Healthy Child Healthy WorldEdit
Healthy Child Healthy World (HCHW), a group that "empowers parents to take action and protect children from harmful chemicals", merged with EWG in October 2014.
The EWG publishes a "Dirty Dozen" list of foods with the highest pesticide residue, and recommends that consumers look for organically produced varieties of these products; the annual release of this list attracts widespread media coverage, and is thought to have a significant effect on the produce choices of many Americans. Currently, agroindustrially produced strawberries are heading the list.
Cell phone radiation reportEdit
EWG launched a cell phone radiation report in September 2009 that stated while the long-term effects of cell phone radiation are still being studied, there is sufficient research that shows higher risk for brain and salivary gland tumors among heavy cell phone users. EWG encouraged consumers to look up their cell phone's radiation level, and to wear a headset when talking on the phone to limit their exposure. In August 2013, EWG released a web page which reviews and tabulates studies showing relationships between mobile phone use and low sperm count and sperm quality. The relationships shown are not argued to be due to ionisation of atoms or damage to DNA, but some other biological mechanism—relationships are demonstrated in population surveys, in studies on individuals, and on sperm in vitro in the laboratory environment 
Skin Deep is a cosmetics safety database which pairs ingredients in over 79,000 products against 50 toxicity and regulatory databases. The database is intended as a resource for consumers, who can search by ingredient or product when choosing personal care products.
In 2009, EWG updated Skin Deep with a report on chemicals in sunscreen, lip balm and SPF lotions. The report states that 3 out of 5 sunscreen products offer inadequate protection from the sun, or contain ingredients with significant safety concerns. The report identifies only 17% of the products on the market as both safe and effective, blocking both UVA and UVB radiation, remaining stable in sunlight, and containing few if any ingredients with significant known or suspected health hazards.[medical citation needed] Oxybenzone is among the list that blocks both forms of radiation but has been deemed unsafe by the EWG due to controversy over its potential estrogenic and anti-androgenic effects.[medical citation needed]
In its fourth annual "Sunscreen Guide", issued in May 2010, Environmental Working Group gave generally low marks to currently available sunscreen products. EWG researchers recommended only 39 out of 500 sunscreens available at the time.
2007 Farm BillEdit
EWG operates the farm subsidy database, an online searchable database of recipients of taxpayer funded agriculture subsidy payments. The information is obtained directly from the United States Department of Agriculture via Freedom of Information Act requests.
In the 2007 Farm Bill, EWG advocated for:
- Cutting wasteful spending to profitable large farm operations, absentee landlords, ‘hobby’ farmers.
- Increased support for organic agriculture, the fastest growing sector of the agriculture industry. In August 2007, EWG president Ken Cook delivered a petition of 30,000 names gathered online to Congressman Ron Kind (D-WI).
- Increasing funding for nutrition.
- Increasing funding for conservation.
During the fall 2007 debate over the farm bill EWG produced computer generated Google maps of cities across the country identifying the number of federal farm subsidy checks sent to that area. Acting-Secretary of Agriculture Chuck Conner used the maps during speeches and with the media as he advocated for fundamental reforms to the farm subsidy programs.
Who owns the West?Edit
EWG has used computer mapping tools to demonstrate the surge in mining claims near the Grand Canyon, Yosemite and other national parks. The House of Representatives passed the first update of the nation’s hardrock mining law since 1872 in 2007. The bill, which bans mining claims around national parks and wilderness and imposes the first-ever royalties on minerals taken from public lands, awaits action in the Senate. EWG staff testified before both the House and Senate during consideration of mining reform.
Involvement in reprimand of John Stossel by ABCEdit
A February 2000 story about organic vegetables on 20/20 included a comment by John Stossel that ABC News tests had shown that neither organic nor conventional produce samples contained any pesticide residue, and that organic food was more likely to be contaminated by E. coli bacteria. The Environmental Working Group took exception to his report, mainly questioning his statements about bacteria, but also found that the produce had never been tested for pesticides. EWG communicated this to Stossel but the story was rebroadcast months later not only with the allegedly inaccurate statement uncorrected, but with a postscript in which Stossel reiterated his error. After the New York Times took note of the error, ABC News suspended the producer of the segment for a month and reprimanded Stossel, who issued an apology over the incident, saying that he had thought the tests had been conducted as reported, but that he had been wrong. He asserted, however, that the gist of his report had been accurate.
Benzene in soft drinksEdit
In 2006 EWG sent a letter to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration contending that the agency knew about the presence of benzene in soft drinks and suppressed the information from the public. EWG described the finding of benzene in soft drinks as a "clear health threat". A second letter in April 2006  reported that 80% of diet sodas tested from 1996 to 2001 in FDA's Total Diet Study had benzene levels above the 5 ppb, including one at 55ppb and a regular cola at 138 ppb.
The EWG issues various red alerts for products or other safety warnings. In 2004, the EWG raised concern over the approval by the Environmental Protection Agency of the herbicide under the trade name Enlist Duo, claiming that schools within the vicinity of farm fields may have children exposed to the herbicide. This claim has been dismissed by James McWilliams as fear mongering and misleading, with little evidence to support the claims made by the EWG.
Finances and fundingEdit
For Fiscal Year ending December 2015, EWG raised nearly $13.7 million and spent $12.5 million. Over 84 cents out of every dollar go toward EWG's actual programs. As of March 2008, EWG reports 30 staff members with its president Ken Cook earning $289,022 in reportable income per year in 2015.
Most of the funding comes from foundations, and a partial list of major funders is available on the organization's website. Another large portion of the budget comes from individuals, with the rest stemming from interest, small sales, and consulting for other organizations.
Potential conflicts of interestEdit
The EWG participates in the Amazon affiliates program. Many of the product that they link to in their cosmetic database are products that the EWG gives very poor safety ratings to.
Critics of the list have suggested that it significantly overstates the risk to consumers of the listed items, and that the methodology employed in constructing the list "lacks scientific credibility".
Cell phone radiation reportEdit
This database has had criticism directed towards it for having questionable validity and reliability; accusations of synthesis of information; and the classification of the compound polyparaben, which some allege does not exist.
Industry representatives called the 2008 sunscreen report inaccurate. Personal Care Products Council general counsel Farah Ahmed said, "It is very clear to me that they have a very low level of understanding of the way sunscreens work and the way they are regulated by the FDA and tested by the industry." She expressed further concern, "I would hate to think that there are parents out there not using sunscreen on their kids because of a report like this that is not based on real science." Representatives from Schering-Plough (Coppertone), Johnson & Johnson (Neutrogena), and Sun Pharmaceuticals Corp. (Banana Boat) also reiterated their products' safety and efficacy.
Commenting on the 2010 sunscreen report, Dr. Zoe Draelos, of Duke University and spokesperson for the American Academy of Dermatology, said the group made unfair "sweeping generalizations" in its report and their recommendations were based on "very old technology."
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- "Skin Deep: Cosmetic Safety Reviews". Cosmeticsdatabase.com. Retrieved 2011-03-30.
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- "Healthy Child Healthy World's Mission". Healthy Child Healthy World. Retrieved July 11, 2015.
- September 2009. "Limit Your Exposure to Cell Phone Radiation Report". Ewg.org. Retrieved 2011-03-30.
- Boyles, Salynn (2 July 2008). "Many Sunscreens Ineffective, Group Says". WebMD. CBS News. Retrieved 21 June 2015.
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- Miller, Michelle (2007-08-07). "Sunscreen: Don't Get Burned - Couric & Co". Cbsnews.com. Retrieved 2011-03-30.
- Centers for Disease Control. CDC: Americans Carry Body Burden of Toxic Sunscreen Chemical. Environmental Working Group. EWG, 25 Mar. 2008. Web. 14 Mar. 2014.
- Ma R, et al. UV filters with antagonistic action at androgen receptors in the MDA-kb2 cell transcriptional-activation assay. Toxicol Sci 2003; 74: 43–50.
- Report: Only 8 Percent of Sunscreens Recommended accessed 5 January 2016
- "EWG, US Mining Database". Ewg.org. Retrieved 2011-03-30.
- January 2008. "Report: Grand Canyon Threatened by Approval of Uranium Mining Activities | Environmental Working Group". Ewg.org. Retrieved 2011-03-30.
- Mulkern, Anne C. (2008-03-18). "136 Years Later, Mine Law May Get Update". Denver Post.
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- "Give Me a Fake: Stossel Under Fire". Environmental Working Group. 2000-09-06. Retrieved 2007-09-26.
- EWG Letter to the FDA Re: Benzene, February 28, 2006, .
- FDA Data Undercut Public Safety Assurances by Top Agency Official, April 4th, 2006 
- Total Diet Study, U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Created June 1991, Updated July 2008, available at: "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2007-12-21. Retrieved 2007-12-21..
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- "How Dirty Are Your Fruits and Veggies?". Center for Accountability in Science. Retrieved 17 May 2018.
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- Ahlbom, A.; Feytching, M.; Green, A.; Kheifets, L.; Savitz, D. A.; Swerdlow, A. J. (September 2009). "Epidemiologic Evidence on Mobile Phones and Tumor Risk: A Review". Epidemiology. 20 (5): 639–652. doi:10.1097/EDE.0b013e3181b0927d. PMID 19593153. Retrieved 17 May 2018.
-  WebMD article "Advocacy Group Says Many Popular Sunscreens Offer Inadequate Sun Protection"
- "EWG Sunscreen Report Misleading, Skin Expert Says (Go Ahead, Slather It On)". The Huffington Post. 27 May 2010. Retrieved 21 June 2015.