English-language learner

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An English language learner (often capitalized as English Language Learner or abbreviated to ELL) is a term used in some English-speaking countries such as the US and Canada to describe a person who is learning the English language in addition to their native language or any other languages they may speak. The instruction and assessment of students, their cultural background, and the attitudes of classroom teachers towards ELLs have all been found to be factors in ELL student achievement. Several methods have been suggested to effectively teach ELLs, including bringing their home cultures into the classroom, involving them in language-appropriate content-area instruction from the beginning, and integrating literature into their learning programs. Some educational advocates, especially in the United States, encourage the use of other terms, such as non-native English speaker or emergent bilingual.[1]

HistoryEdit

The term "English Language Learner" was first used by Mark LaCelle-Peterson and Charlene Rivera in their 1994 study, referring to students whose first language is not English, and including both limited and higher levels of language proficiency. The term ELL emphasizes that students are mastering another language, something many monolingual students in American schools do not do. In adopting the term, LaCelle-Peterson and Rivera gave analogies of other conventional educational terms. The authors believed that just as we refer to advanced teaching candidates as "student teachers" rather than "limited teaching proficient individuals," the term ELL underscores what students are learning instead of their limitations.[2]

Various other terms are also used to refer to students who are not proficient in English, such as English as a Second Language (ESL), English as an Additional Language (EAL), limited English proficient (LEP), Culturally and Linguistically Diverse (CLD), non-native English speaker, bilingual students, heritage language, emergent bilingual, and language-minority students. The legal term that is used in federal legislation is 'limited English proficient'. [3]

InstructionEdit

In a five-week study by Huang, research showed that "classroom instruction appeared to play an important role in integrating language skills development and academic content learning," This study showed that the "students acquire linguistic/literacy skills and scientific knowledge hand in hand as they assume various communicative and social roles within carefully planned language activities".[4] By tying in written texts with the science content the students were able to improve their language development between drafts and build on their science content knowledge as well. There are various forms of ELL instruction. Fast-track to English programs encourage students to use English as quickly as possible and offer little to no native language support. In transition-bilingual programs, instruction begins in the student's native language and then switches to English in elementary or middle school. In dual language programs (also known as two-way bilingual or two-way immersion programs), students become fluent simultaneously in their native language and English. [5] Sheltered instruction is another approach in which integrates language and content instruction in the mainstream classroom environment.[6]

Push-in program versus pull-out programEdit

Two specific models of instruction include the push-in program and the pull-out program. The push-in program includes the English teacher coming into the classroom to help the English language learner. The benefit of this method is that students remain integrated in the classroom with their native English speaking peers. This method does not isolate or single out ELL students. However, this method can present challenges in co-teaching, as the educators must work together to collaborate in the classroom. [7] In schools using a push-in style of teaching, educators disagree over whether ELL students should be encouraged or permitted to participate in additional foreign language classes, such as French. Some educators argue that learning another additional language while learning English might be too challenging for ELLs, or that ELLs should focus on their English proficiency before attempting further languages. Other educators insist that foreign language classes are the only classes that put ELL students on a level playing field with their peers, and furthermore that research may suggest that ELL students perform better in foreign language classes than their peers.[8]


The push-out program entails the ELL student learning in a separate classroom with the English teacher. The benefit of such a method is that ELL students receive individualized, focused training. However, this method can isolate ELL students from the rest of their peers, leaving them feeling left out from the community.[9]

Issues in schoolsEdit

AssessmentEdit

The federal No Child Left Behind Act requires all ELLs attending public schools from grades K-12 to be assessed in multiple language domains, such as listening, reading, writing, and speaking. The NCLB Act also requires ELL students to partake in statewide standardized testing. However, there is an achievement gap between ELLs and their native English-speaking peers. [10] This achievement gap persists not only in language-based disciplines, but also in the math, science, and social science subjects. Research in this area suggests that ELL students' content-based assessment outcomes might be confounded by language barriers.[11]

TeachersEdit

Attitudes of educators play a major role in the ESL classroom. Estimates suggest that approximately 45% of teachers in America have ELL students in their classrooms.[12] However, many teachers have negative perceptions of ELL students in their classrooms. These negative perceptions are informed by a bias that ELL students are not adequately trying or that they are personally at fault for their language barrier.[13] Research shows that teachers negative attitudes may stem from lack of time to address unique ELL student classroom needs,[14], added teacher workload when working with ELL students in mainstream classrooms,[15] and personal feelings of professional insufficiency to work with ELL students.[16][17] Research indicates that only 12% of K-12 teachers in United States have training in working with ELL students.[12]

"Teachers' language-acquisition misconceptions may color their attitudes towards ELLs and ELL inclusion, leading educators to misdiagnose learning difficulties or misattribute student failure to lack of intelligence or effort".[17]By providing a good learning environment, it will have a positive effect on the students' overall success in terms of linguistic, social, cognitive, and academic developments. In terms of teacher preparation, Garcia, O. & Menken, K. suggest that it is necessary for the ELL Teacher to engage in inward self-reflection before acting outwardly. In their piece "Moving Forward: Ten Guiding Principles for Teachers", they propose that because Language Teachers often act as informal policymakers, it is imperative that they first understand their own "ways of languaging" and preconceptions about languages and language learners. It could be detrimental, they conclude, for a language teacher to enter the classroom without the necessary reflection and self-awareness, as these teachers could unknowingly impose systems of linguistic discrimination (linguicism).[18]

CultureEdit

According to Contiga (2015), culture is the third issue that may not always be recognized in a mainstream classroom. Many teachers overlook culture and try to jump right into English and content knowledge without knowing their students' backgrounds. Teachers need to be open to learning new cultures and having their students embrace all cultures in the classroom. By making efforts to learn about each other's values and beliefs, the teacher and student would not only maximize the effectiveness of ESL but make it a successful learning experience for all involved. A student who is shy or reluctant to answer questions may be more outspoken when talking about their own values that tie in with their home life. An ESL teacher, in a study called "Losing Strangeness to Mediate ESL Teaching", "connects culture to religious celebrations and holidays and the fusion invites students to share their knowledge".[19] This will encourage students to open up and talk about their cultural backgrounds and traditions within their family. "Teachers who encourage CLD students to maintain their cultural or ethnic ties promote their personal and academic success".[20]:90 Students should not lose their identity but gain knowledge from their culture and the world around them. Therefore, it is beneficial to bring culture into the ESL classroom in order for the students to feel a sense of worth in school and in their lives.

Outside of the classroom, ELL students are otherwise institutionally marginalized, as well. They often sit at separate lunch tables and are under-recognized in school assemblies.[13]

Enriching the classroom environmentEdit

In order to have an environment that is beneficial for the teacher and the student culture, literature, and other disciplines should be integrated systematically into the instruction. "Postponing content-area instruction until CLD students gain academic language skills widens the achievement gap between the learners and their native-English speaking peers".[20]:173 Relating to culture, teachers need to integrate it into the lesson, in order for the students to feel a sense of appreciation and a feeling of self-worth.

By integrating literature into the instruction students will benefit substantially. "Reading texts that match learner interests and English proficiency provide learners with comprehensible language input—a chance to learn new vocabulary in context and to see the syntax of the language".[21] Students will be motivated and will make learning more enjoyable. Lastly, by integrating other disciplines into the lesson it will make the content more significant to the learners and will create higher order thinking skills across the areas. By integrating language into other contents, it focuses not only on learning a second language, but using that language as a medium to learn mathematics, science, social studies, or other academic subjects".[22] When language and content areas are integrated ESL students become aware "that English is not just an object of academic interest nor merely a key to passing an examination; instead, English becomes a real means of interaction and sharing among people".[23] Therefore, students will be able to communicate across the curriculum, acquire higher level skills, and be successful in their daily lives.

Strategies for supporting English language learners in the classroomEdit

  • Incorporating technology

The internet makes it possible for students to view videos of activities, events and places around the world. Viewing these activities can help English language learners to develop an understanding of new concepts while at the same time building topic related schema (background knowledge).[citation needed]

  • Experiential learning

Teacher can provide opportunities for English language learners to acquire vocabulary and build knowledge through hands-on learning.[24]

  • Connecting learning to prior knowledge

In order to make learning more meaningful, connect a new topic to an experience or event from the English language learner's background. This can support the English language learner in making connections between vocabulary in their L1 (first language) and English.[citation needed]

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ García, Ofelia; Kleifgen, Jo Anne; Falchi, Lorraine (2008). "From English Language Learners to Emergent Bilinguals". Campaign for Educational Equity.
  2. ^ LaCelle-Peterson, Mark (1994). "Is it Real for All Kids? A Framework for Equitable Assessment Policies for English Language Learners". Harvard Educational Review. 64: 55–76. doi:10.17763/haer.64.1.k3387733755817j7 – via ERIC.
  3. ^ Wright, Wayne (2010). Foundations for Teaching English Language Learners. Philadelphia: Caslon. pp. 3 and 4.
  4. ^ Huang, J. (2000). "Integration of academic content learning and academic literacy skills development of L2 students: A case study of an ESL science class". In Shanahan, Timothy; Rodríguez-Brown, Flora V. (eds.). The 49th yearbook of the National Reading Conference. Chicago: National Reading Conference. p. 403. ISBN 978-1-893591-02-8.
  5. ^ https://www.understood.org/en/school-learning/special-services/english-language-learners/understanding-learning-and-thinking-differences-in-ells
  6. ^ Hansen-Thomas, Holly (2012-07-13). "Sheltered Instruction: Best Practices for ELLs in the Mainstream". Kappa Delti Pi Record. 44:4: 165–69.
  7. ^ http://blogs.edweek.org/edweek/learning-the-language/2008/06/research_on_pushin_versus_push.html
  8. ^ "Welcoming English Language Learners into French as a Second Language Programs" (PDF). Ontario Ministry of Education. Retrieved 27 January 2019.
  9. ^ "Push In Versus Pull Out in Esl". theeducatorsroom.com.
  10. ^ Davis Lenski, Susan; Ehlers-Zavala, Fabiola; Daniel, Mayra; Sun-Irminger, Xiaoqin (2006). "Assessing English-language learners in mainstream classrooms". International Reading Association – via Wiley Online Library.
  11. ^ Abedi, Jamal (2006). "Psychometric Issues in the ELL Assessment and Special Education Eligibility" (PDF). Teachers College Record. 108.
  12. ^ a b Walker, Anne; Shafer, Jill; Iiams, Michelle (2004). ""Not In My Classroom": Teacher Attitudes Towards English Language Learners in the Mainstream Classroom". NABE Journal of Research and Practice. 2.
  13. ^ a b Carley Rizzuto, Kerry (22 June 2017). "Teachers' Perceptions of ELL Students: Do Their Attitudes Shape Their Instruction?". The Teacher Educator. 52: 182–202 – via Taylor & Francis.
  14. ^ Youngs, Cheryl S.; Youngs, George A. Jr. (Spring 2001). "Predictors of Mainstream Teachers' Attitudes toward ESL Students". TESOL Quarterly. 35 (1): 97–120. doi:10.2307/3587861. JSTOR 3587861.
  15. ^ Gitlin, A.; Buendia, E.; Crosland, K.; Doumbia, F. (2003). "The Production of Margin and Center: Welcoming-Unwelcoming of Immigrant Students". American Educational Research Journal. 40: 91–122. doi:10.3102/00028312040001091.
  16. ^ Verplaetse, Lorrie Stoops (Autumn 1998). "How Content Teachers Interact with English Language Learners". TESOL Journal. 7 (5): 24–28.
  17. ^ a b Reeves, Jenelle R. (2006). "Secondary Teacher Attitudes toward including English language learners in Mainstream Classrooms". Journal of Educational Research. 99 (3): 131–142. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.957.3133. doi:10.3200/joer.99.3.131-143. ISSN 0022-0671.
  18. ^ Garcia, O. & Menken, K. "Moving Forward: Ten Guiding Principles for Teachers"
  19. ^ Rowsell, J.; Sztainbok, V.; Blaney, J. (2007). "Losing Strangeness: Using Culture to Mediate ESL Teaching" (PDF). Language, Culture and Curriculum. 20 (2): 140–154. doi:10.2167/lcc331.0. Retrieved July 4, 2011. p147.
  20. ^ a b Herrera, Socorro; Murry, Kevin; Cabral, Robin (2007). Assessment Accommodations for Classroom Teachers of Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Students. Boston: Pearson/Allyn and Bacon. ISBN 978-0-205-49271-8.
  21. ^ Rabideau, Dan (March 1993). "Integrating Reading and Writing into Adult ESL Instruction". ERIC Identifier: ED358749. ERIC Digests. Retrieved June 30, 2011.
  22. ^ Reilly Tarey (May 1988). "ESL through Content Area Instruction". Washington DC: ERIC Clearinghouse on Languages and Linguistics. Retrieved July 6, 2011.
  23. ^ Oxford, Rebecca (September 2001). "Integrated Skills in the ESL/EFL Classroom". ERIC Digest. 6(1)1-7. Center for Applied Linguistics. p. 5. Archived from the original on September 5, 2011. Retrieved June 30, 2011.
  24. ^ Schecter, S. R. (2012). The predicament of generation 1.5 English language learners: Three disjunctures and a possible way forward. Canadian Journal of Education, 35(4), 322.