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Endurantism or endurance theory is a philosophical theory of persistence and identity. According to the endurantist view, material objects are persisting three-dimensional individuals wholly present at every moment of their existence, which goes with an A-theory of time. This conception of an individual as always present is opposed to perdurantism or four dimensionalism, which maintains that an object is a series of temporal parts or stages, requiring a B-theory of time. The use of "endure" and "perdure" to distinguish two ways in which an object can be thought to persist can be traced to David Lewis.
- Zalta, Edward N. (ed.). "Temporal parts". Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
- Lewis, D.K.. 1986. On the Plurality of Worlds Oxford: Blackwell
- McKinnon, N. 2002. "The Endurance/Perdurance Distinction", The Australasian Journal of Philosophy 80:3 p. 288-306.
- Merricks, T. 1999. "Persistence, Parts and Presentism", Noûs 33 p. 421-38.
- Sider, T. 2001. Four-Dimensionalism Oxford: Clarendon Press.
- Zimmerman, D. 1996. "Persistence and Presentism", Philosophical Papers 25:2.
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