The Elgeyo (also known as Keiyo) are an ethnic group that is part the larger Kalenjin ethnic group of Nilotic origin. They live near Eldoret, Kenya in the highlands of the former Keiyo District now part of the larger Elgeyo Marakwet County. The Elgeyo together with Kipsigis, Marakwet, Pokot, Sabaot, Tugen and Nandi are in some literature referred to as Highland Nilotes. The Elgeyo like other Highland Nilotes, subsist mainly on grain, milk, blood and meat provided by their cattle, sheep and goats.
|Regions with significant populations|
|Elgeyo Marakwet County and Uasin Gishu|
|Predominantly Christianity, Islam & African Traditional Religion|
|Related ethnic groups|
|Kipsigis people, Tugen people, Marakwet people, Pokot people, Nandi people, Sebeii|
The name Keiyo or Elgeyo have been used interchangeably. The former name being disputed as a corruption of the latter true name which was coined by the Uasin Gishu Maasai who were the neighbors of the Keiyo in the mid 19th century at the western side of expansive Uasin Gishu plains.
The Keiyo like the rest of the Kalenjin originated from a country in the north known as Emetab Burgei, which means, the hot country. The people are said to have traveled southwards passing through Mount Elgon or Tulwetab Kony in Kalenjin. The Sebeii settled around the slopes of the mountain while the others travelled on in search of better land. The Keiyo and Marakwet settled in present Uasin Gishu plateau, Kerio Valley and Cherangani Hills. The arrival of Warring Uasin Gishu Maasai in the present day Uasin Gishu plateau forced the Elgeyo to move away into the present day Kerio Valley during the expansion of the tribe. The loss of much of their grazing lands forced them to reduce their herds and rely more on agriculture.
Language & LinguisticsEdit
Elgeiyo people speak a Kalenjin/Kutiit language that falls under the Kipsigis - Nandi - Keiyo - Southern Tugen - Cherang'any' cluster.
There are three predominant sub dialects of Keiyo dialect. These are Irong, Mutei and Metkei.
Territorially, the Elgeiyo People divided their land into 16-east-west stretches to control intermarriage and displacement of a clan by other clans and a system of totems were acquired. The land was divided so that each group had access to the banks of Kerio River and thus the totems ran perpendicular to the river. From the south to the north the clans are Metkei, Kapkwoni, Maoi,Tumeiyo, Kowochi, Mwen, Sego, Chebior, Chang'ach, Rokocho, Mutei, Maam, Irong', Kaptany and Kapchemutwa. The land was sub-divided to members of the same clan marked by a series of stones referred to as Koiwek.
The Elgeiyo social organisation centres on the age-set, or ebendo. There are eight age-sets (ebenwek) which are rotational, meaning after the end of one age set (after approximately 120 years), new members of age-set are born. Unlike the Nandi and the Tugen who have only seven age-sets (due to loss of an entire age-set in battle), the Keiyo retained all the eight age sets. The order is given below. Ebendo was given out during initiation. The age set system is organized in such a way that a father and a son cannot be of the same or sequential age sets. That is, there ought to be one ebendo between a father and a son. For example, a Kipkoimet cannot beget a Kaplelach. The Elgeiyo don't consider a woman to have an ageset, hence she can marry any ageset except that in which her father belongs.
A member of an age set for example kipyigei, will identify himself in Keiyo as
Meaning he is of Kipnyigei age-set. On the other hand, a married woman will identify herself using the age-set of her husband. For example, a woman married to a kipnyigei will identity herself as
Meaning she is of a kipyigeei.
Due to population growth over time, the Keiyo community gradually moved and settled in urban areas to do business in major urban centers including Eldoret town where they are now actively engaged in businesses alongside the Marakwets, Nandis and other non-Kalenjins.
Notable Keiyo peopleEdit
- "2019 Kenya Population and Housing Census Volume IV: Distribution of Population by Socio-Economic Characteristics". Kenya National Bureau of Statistics. Retrieved 24 March 2020.
- Odhiambo Makoloo, Maurice; Ghai, Yash (2005). Kenya: Minorities, Indigenous Peoples and Ethnic Diversity (PDF). Minority Rights Group International. Retrieved 16 October 2016.
- Chesaina, C. Oral Literature of the Kalenjin. Heinmann Kenya Ltd, 1991, p. 29
- Chebet, S; Dietz, A.J. Climbing the cliff : a history of the Keiyo. Eldoret: Moi University Press. p. 12. ISBN 9966-85415-0.