Echium candicans

Echium candicans, the 'Pride of Madeira', is a species of flowering plant in the family Boraginaceae, native to the island of Madeira. It is a large herbaceous perennial subshrub, growing to 1.5–2.5 m (4 ft 11 in – 8 ft 2 in).[3]

Pride of Madeira
Echium candicans1311.jpg
Scientific classification edit
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Tracheophytes
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Eudicots
Clade: Asterids
Order: Boraginales
Family: Boraginaceae
Genus: Echium
E. candicans
Binomial name
Echium candicans
(L.f., 1782)
  • Argyrexias candicans Raf.
  • Echium brachyanthum Hornem.
  • Echium cynoglossoides Desf.
  • Echium densiflorum DC.
  • Echium macrophyllum Lehm.
  • Echium maderense Steud.
  • Echium marianum Boiss.
  • Echium pallidum Salisb.
  • Echium pavonianum Boiss.
  • Echium truncatum auct.


In the first year after germination, the plant produces a broad rosette of leaves. In the second and subsequent years, more or less woody flowering stalks are produced clothed in rough leaves. The flower head is large and covered with white or blue flowers having red stamens. The flower head is much visited by bees and butterflies for its nectar.[4]


The Latin specific epithet candicans means "shining white", referring to one colour form of this species.[5]


E. candicans is cultivated in the horticulture trade and widely available throughout the world as an ornamental plant for traditional and drought-tolerant, water-conserving gardens. It is particularly suitable for coastal planting. With a temperature requirement of no less than 5–7 °C (41–45 °F), it needs some winter protection in frost-prone areas. It has gained the Royal Horticultural Society's Award of Garden Merit.[6][7]

Invasive speciesEdit

In California, it is an invasive species. It is removed from native plant communities as part of habitat restoration efforts in coastal parks such as the Golden Gate National Recreation Area.[8]

In New Zealand, it is a common garden escapee onto roadside verges and shingle banks throughout the drier parts of both the North and the South Islands.

In the state of Victoria, Australia, it is considered to be a high weed risk and an alert has been posted by the Department of Primary Industries.[9]


  1. ^ Carvalho, J.A. (2017) [errata version of 2011 assessment]. "Echium candicans". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2011: e.T162036A115869493. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2011-1.RLTS.T162036A5538047.en.
  2. ^ The Plant List: A Working List of All Plant Species, retrieved 6 November 2015
  3. ^ RHS A-Z encyclopedia of garden plants. United Kingdom: Dorling Kindersley. 2008. p. 1136. ISBN 978-1405332965.
  4. ^ "Echium candicans". Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Agricultural Research Service (ARS), United States Department of Agriculture (USDA).
  5. ^ Harrison, Lorraine (2012). RHS Latin for Gardeners. United Kingdom: Mitchell Beazley. ISBN 978-1845337315.
  6. ^ "RHS Plant Selector - Echium candicans". Retrieved 23 February 2020.
  7. ^ "AGM Plants - Ornamental" (PDF). Royal Horticultural Society. July 2017. p. 35. Retrieved 6 February 2018.
  8. ^ "Echium candicans Profile". California Invasive Plant Council. 2017-03-20. Retrieved 8 December 2019.
  9. ^ "Pride of Madeira – Echium candicans". Retrieved 20 June 2012.