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Dzongkha Braille, or Bhutanese Braille, is the braille alphabet for writing Dzongkha, the national language of Bhutan. It is based on English braille, with some extensions from international usage. As in print, the vowel a is not written.

Dzongkha Braille
Bhutanese Braille
Type
LanguagesDzongkha
Parent systems
Braille
Print basis
Tibetan alphabet

Despite Dzongkha and Tibetan using nearly the same alphabet in print, the braille alphabets differ radically, with Tibetan Braille closer to German conventions and assigned letter values according to different sound correspondences.

Alphabet[1]Edit

Consonant ka kha ga nga ca cha ja nya
Print
Braille                
Consonant ta tha da na pa pha ba ma
Print
Braille                
Consonant tsa tsha dza wa zha za 'a ya
Print
Braille                
Consonant ra la sha sa ha
Print
Braille          

The reversed letters used in Sanskrit loanwords are indicated with the diacritic :

, , , , .

The vowel "a" is inherent in a consonant letter, and is not written explicitly. Other vowels are written after a consonant as in English Braille. When a vowel occurs at the beginning of a word, the vowel letter is carried by a null consonant ⟩:

Vowels a i u e o
Print
(on )
ཨི ཨུ ཨེ ཨོ
Braille              
ka ki ku ke ko
Print
(on )
ཀི ཀུ ཀེ ཀོ
Braille              

Sanskrit vowel-marking includes:

ཨཿ aḥ, ཨྃ aṃ,

as in ཀིཿ kiḥ, ཀོྃ koṃ.

It's not clear how conjuncts are indicated. However, the conjunct ཀྵ kṣa in Sanskrit loans suggests that the 45 points conjoin two consonants.

PunctuationEdit

Digits are as in English Braille. Native punctuation (syllable divider, comma, stop) is:

Print
Braille       

Roman punctuation differs from that of English Braille. The question and exclamation marks, for example, are prefixed by a point 6, and .

Print , ? ! ; : . ... - / *
Braille                            
Print “ ... ” ( ... ) [ ... ] { ... }
Braille                    

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ UNESCO (2013) World Braille Usage, 3rd edition.