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A dried up Lake Hume, 2007
Drought-affected fields in the Victorian countryside, 2006

Drought in Australia is defined by the Australian Bureau of Meteorology as rainfall over a three-month period being in the lowest decile of what has been recorded for that region in the past.[1] This definition takes into account that drought is a relative term and rainfall deficiencies need to be compared to typical rainfall patterns including seasonal variations. Specifically, drought in Australia is defined in relation to a rainfall deficiency of pastoral leases and is determined by decile analysis applied to a certain area.[2] Note that this definition uses rainfall only because long-term records are widely available across most of Australia. However, it does not take into account other variables that might be important for establishing surface water balance, such as evaporation and condensation.

Historical climatic records are now sufficiently reliable to profile climate variability taking into account expectations for regions.[3] Bureau of Meteorology records since the 1860s show that a ‘severe’ drought has occurred in Australia, on average, once every 18 years.[4] State Governments are responsible for declaring a region drought affected and the declaration will take into account factors other than rainfall.[1]

The worst droughts to affect the country occurred in the 21st century—between the years 2003 to 2012, and 2017 to current. As at mid 2019, many regions of Australia are still in significant drought, and rainfall records have showed a marked decrease in precipitation levels since 1994.[5]Deficiencies in northern Australia increased in 2013–14, leading to an extended drought period in certain parts of Queensland. Between 2017 and 2019, severe drought developed once more across much of eastern and inland Australia including Queensland, New South Wales and Victoria, also extending into parts of South and Western Australia.

William Ranken (1839-1902) describes the relentless nature of drought in his book, The Dominion of Australia (1874).

.. all around was the most dreadful desolation. There is nothing so oppressive and utterly subduing as a drought. It is not a fierce calamity, not a dreaded blow, nor any brief struggle; here, in the vast interior of Australia, it is a torturing Titan, overwhelming and resistless, but slow and monotonous in its destruction. Daily the same glaring angry sky, the same cracked, gaping, thirsty earth, the leaden ghastly foliage, the glistening few blades of grass - all quivering in the mighty heat. No green thing, no fresh colour, no breath of wind, no sound from earth or air or beast or bird or insect; all in silence - in a breathless appalling silence. Nightly the sun sets in sullen anger, and the moon rises in the cold distant ether. The firmament is clear beyond conception, the stars bright, the moon radiant; all cool, distant, dewless, pitiless.[6]

.

Droughts in the 19th centuryEdit

 
Golden Summer, Eaglemont, painted in 1889 by Heidelberg School artist Arthur Streeton, shows the semi-rural Melbourne suburb of Heidelberg during an El Niño drought.
  • 1803 Drought in New South Wales (NSW) that produced severe crop failures.
  • 1809 Beginning of an unusually severe drought in NSW that continued until 1811.
  • 1813−15 Severe drought in NSW that prompted searches for new pastures.
  • 1826−29 Severe drought in NSW that caused Lake George to dry up and the Darling River to cease flowing.[7]

Since 1860, when adequate meteorological recording commenced, the most severe droughts have occurred commonly at intervals of 11 to 14 years. Major droughts that were recorded later in the 19th century include:

  • 1835 and 1838 Sydney and NSW receive 25% less rain than usual. Severe drought in Northam and York areas of Western Australia.
  • 1838−39 Droughts in South Australia and Western Australia
  • 1839 Severe drought in the west and north of Spencer Gulf, South Australia.
  • 1846 Severe drought converted the interior and far north of South Australia into an arid desert.
  • 1849 Sydney received about 27 inches less rain than normal.
  • 1850 Severe drought, with big losses of livestock across inland New South Wales and around the western rivers region.
  • 1864−66 (and 1868). The little data available indicates that this drought period was rather severe in Victoria, South Australia, New South Wales, Queensland and Western Australia.
  • 1877 All states affected by severe drought, with disastrous losses in Queensland. In Western Australia many native trees died, swamps dried up and crops failed.
  • 1880 to 1886 Drought in Victoria (northern areas and Gippsland); New South Wales (mainly northern wheat belt, Northern Tablelands and south coast); Queensland (1881–86, in south-east with breaks – otherwise mainly in coastal areas, the central highlands and central interior in 1883–86); and South Australia (1884–86, mainly in agricultural areas).
  • 1888 Extremely dry in Victoria (northern areas and Gippsland); Tasmania (1887–89 in the south); New South Wales had the driest year since records began; Queensland (1888–89) had a very severe drought, with much native scrub dying and native animals perishing; South Australia had one of its most severe droughts; and Western Australia (central agricultural areas) lost many sheep.[9]
  • 1897 Drought in much of Queensland, compared to 1883–84 droughts.[10]

Drought in the 20th centuryEdit

Federation droughtEdit

 
A dried-up lagoon in Wagga Wagga, New South Wales, during the 1912 drought.

At the time of Federation, Australia suffered a major drought. There had been a number of years of below average rainfall across most of Australia before the drought. During the drought, the wheat crop was "all but lost", and the Darling River was dry at Bourke, New South Wales, for over a year, from April 1902 to May 1903. There was concern about Sydney's water supply.[11] By 1902, Australia's sheep population dropped from its 1891 level of 106 million to fewer than 54 million. Cattle numbers fell by more than 40 per cent. Sheep numbers did not return to 100 million until 1925.

In the 1911–1915 period, Australia suffered a major drought, which resulted in the failure of the 1914 wheat crop.[12] During 1918 to 1920, a severe drought was experienced by Queensland, New South Wales, South Australia, Northern Territory (Darwin-Daly Waters area and central Australia), Western Australia (Fortescue area), Victoria, and Tasmania.

Other 20th century droughtsEdit

1937-1947 droughtEdit

During World War II, eastern Australia suffered dry conditions which lasted from 1937 through to 1947 with little respite.[13] The end of the drought coincided with the 1946-47 Ashes series; it rained in all 25 matches played by the tourists, including two tropical rainstorms during the First Test at Brisbane and another in the Second Test at Sydney.[14]

1960sEdit

From 1965–68, eastern Australia was again greatly affected by drought. Conditions had been dry over the centre of the continent since 1957 but spread elsewhere during the summer of 1964/1965. This drought contributed to the 1967 Tasmanian fires in which 62 people died in one day and 1,400 homes were lost.[15]

1980sEdit

The drought in 1982–83 is regarded as the worst of the twentieth century for short-term rainfall deficiencies of up to one year and their over-all impact. There were severe dust storms in north-western Victoria and severe bushfires in south-east Australia in February 1983 with 75 people killed.[16] This El Niño-related drought ended in March, when a monsoon depression became an extratropical low and swept across Australia's interior and on to the south-east in mid- to late March.

1990s Queensland droughtEdit

A very severe drought occurred in the second half of 1991,[17] which intensified in 1994 and 1995 to become the worst on record in Queensland.[18] This drought was influenced by a strong El Niño weather pattern and associated with high temperatures in July and August 1995, the fifth continuous year of drought in parts of Queensland. According to Primary Industries Minister, Ed Casey, "the drought affected region stretched in a 200 km to 300 km wide strip from Stanthorpe to Charters Towers".[19] So few wheat and barley crops survived, about half the usual for that year, that grains had to be imported from other states.[20]

In June 1994, more than ten towns had lost irrigation systems; and some areas had gone five years without decent rainfall.[19]

A part of the upper Darling River system collapsed during this drought. By October 1994, the Condamine River was exhausted, reverting to a series of ponds. Across the state, in more than 13,000 properties, totaling 40% of Queensland, was drought declared.[21] The flow past Goondiwindi was the lowest since 1940. Cotton farms near Moree and Narrabri had been allocated no water for irrigation, which resulted in a major loss of production.[21] The town of Warwick was particularly affected.

Drought in the 21st centuryEdit

2000s or 'Millennium' drought in south-eastern AustraliaEdit

From 1996 to 2010, south-eastern Australia experienced prolonged dry conditions with rainfall persistently well below average, particularly during the cooler months from April to October. The most acute period of the so-called 'Millennium drought' was between 2001 and 2009. The drought finished with the arrival of wet La Niña conditions during 2010 and 2011, with particularly heavy summer rainfall.[22]

 
Green drought, caused by insufficient rain after a long dry period, November 2002

1996 to 2000: patchy rainfall in the south-eastEdit

Dry conditions began to emerge in south-eastern Australia during late 1996 and intensified during the strong 1997 El Niño event.[23] Rainfall in 1998, 1999 and 2000 was closer to average, with isolated areas affected by rainfall well below average.

2001 to 2009: the peak of the droughtEdit

According to the Bureau of Meteorology, much of eastern Australia experienced a dry 2001.[24] 2002 was one of Australia's driest and warmest years on record, with 'remarkably widespread' dry conditions, particularly in the eastern half of the country, which was again affected by El Niño conditions. It was, at the time, Australia's fourth driest year since 1900.[25]

The El Niño weather pattern broke down during 2003, but occasional strong rainfall in 2003 and 2004 failed to alleviate the cumulative effect of persistently low rainfall in south-eastern Australia, with some measurement stations having recorded below average rainfall for eight consecutive years.[26] Rainfall in early 2005 remained below average, and better rainfall in the second half of the year again failed to break continuing drought conditions in the south-east.[27]

 
Dry paddocks in the Riverina region during the 2007 drought

South-east Australia experienced its second driest year on record in 2006, particularly affecting the major agricultural region of the Murray–Darling basin.[28] 2007 saw record temperatures across the south of Australia, and only patchy rain; promising early year rains contrasted with a very dry July-October period, meaning that drought conditions persisted across much of the south-east. At this point, the Bureau of Meteorology estimated that south-eastern Australia had missed the equivalent of a full year's rain in the previous 11 years.[29]

2008 and 2009 saw continuing hot and dry conditions in south-eastern Australia, with occasional heavy rainfall failing to break the continuing drought. The effects of the drought were exacerbated by Australia's (then) second hottest year on record in 2009, with record-breaking heatwaves in January, February and the second half of the year.[30]

2010 and 2011: La Niña finally breaks the droughtEdit

Australia's weather pattern transitioned rapidly to a wet La Niña pattern during autumn, resulting in record-breaking rains in the Murray-Darling Basin and well above average rainfall across the south-east. For many locations this was the first year of above-average rainfall since 1996. The rainfall dramatically increased surface water storage and soil moisture, effectively ending the drought in the south-east.[31] Very wet conditions continued through 2011, resulting in floods in Queensland and northern Victoria.[32]

Effects on agricultural productionEdit

Dairy producers were hit particularly hard by the drought. 2004 was a particularly bleak year in the sector, with revenue in the industry falling by 5.6%.[33]

 
Cattle on a sand island in the Murrumbidgee River; normally underwater, but low rainfall in the catchment during 2008 meant water releases from the dams were reduced.

Agricultural production was affected. Water use by the industry fell by 37% between 2000/01 and 2004/05, due mainly to drought.[34] Around 20 cotton communities and 10,000 people directly employed by the cotton industry were impacted by the drought. The main areas affected were in New South Wales: Menindee, where the area under production was reduced by 100%, Bourke, area reduced by 99%, Walgett by 95%, the Macquarie River by 74% and Gwydir River by 60%. In Queensland, the worst-affected areas were Biloela, which reduced the area under production by 100%, Dirranbandi, by 91%, Central Highlandsby 82% and Darling Downs by 78%. Bourke has only had adequate water for one cotton crop in the last five years.[35]

Stock feed became scarce and farmers found it difficult to feed cattle and sheep.[citation needed]

Dry conditions again began to develop and be sustained in mid-2013 through much of western Queensland.[36] Although these began easing for western Queensland in early 2014, drought began to develop further east, along the coastal fringe and into the ranges of southeast Queensland and northeast New South Wales.[37]

Dry conditions continued into 2015 in the east, particularly in Queensland where the monsoon rains were delayed. Queensland had experienced poor wet season rains for three consecutive seasons.[38] Wetter conditions in 2016 eased the effects of drought in eastern Australia, but pockets of south-east Queensland and north-east New South Wales remained drier than average.[39]

2017-currentEdit

2017 was a drier than average year for much of inland Queensland, most of New South Wales, eastern and central Victoria, and all of Tasmania.[40] In 2018, rainfall for the year was very low over the southeastern quarter of the Australian mainland, with much of the region experiencing totals in the lowest 10% of historical observations, and was particularly low over the mainland southeast from April onwards.[41] The state of New South Wales was declared to be 100% in drought by August 2018, remaining at 98.6% into May 2019;[42][43] by May 2019 65.2% of Queensland was also declared to be in drought.[44] Two southern parts of Western Australia were declared "water deficient" by May 2019 after months of drought, [45], with other drought affected areas including central and east Gippsland in Victoria, and parts of eastern South Australia. On one-to-two-year timeframes to the end of March 2019, rainfall deficiencies in the Murray–Darling Basin, Australia's most extensive river system, were the third lowest on record, behind similar length timeframes between 1901 and 1903, and between 1918 and 1920.[46] By July 2019, a climatologist at the Australian Bureau of Meteorology stated that present the drought was now officially the worst on record in the Murray–Darling Basin, and "had now exceeded the Federation Drought, the WWII drought and the Millennium drought in terms of its severity through the MDB".[47] At the start of October 2019, Australia's Bureau of Meteorology stated that drier and warmer than average conditions were expected to persist at least until the end of the year with no relief in sight for most of the drought affected areas, influenced at least in part by a positive Indian Ocean Dipole and a prolonged period of negative SAM (Southern Annular Mode) during October and November.[48]

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b "Drought". Climate Glossary. Australian Bureau of Meteorology. 2006. Retrieved 13 November 2006.
  2. ^ Tapper, Nigel; Hurry, Lynn (1993). Australia's Weather Patterns: An Introductory Guide. Dellasta. pp. 51–57. ISBN 1-875627-14-6.
  3. ^ "Our Natural Resources at a Glance — Climate" (PDF). Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry (Australia). 2006. Archived from the original (PDF) on 18 March 2009. Retrieved 13 November 2006.
  4. ^ Anderson, Deb (2014). Endurance. CSIRO Publishing. ISBN 9781486301201.
  5. ^ "Climate variability and drought" (PDF). Retrieved 19 September 2014. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  6. ^ Ranken, William Logan (1874), The Dominion of Australia, London, Chapman & Hall, quoted in, H. M. Green, (1984) A history of Australian literature, Vol I, 1789-1923, Sydney, Angus & Robertson, p.342. ISBN 0207143358
  7. ^ Shaw, John H. (1984). Collins Australian Encyclopedia. Sydney: Collins. ISBN 0-00-217315-8.
  8. ^ "Chisholm, Alec H.". The Australian Encyclopaedia. 3. Sydney: Halstead Press. 1963. p. 291.
  9. ^ Australian Encyclopaedia 1963, p. 288
  10. ^ "The Drought in Queensland". The Brisbane Courier. Queensland: National Library of Australia. 11 June 1897. p. 6. Retrieved 1 October 2014.
  11. ^ "The "Federation Drought", 1895–1902". Climate Education. Australian Bureau of Meteorology. 1999. Archived from the original on 17 March 2009. Retrieved 13 November 2006.
  12. ^ "The 1914–15 drought". Climate Education. Australian Bureau of Meteorology. 1999. Archived from the original on 17 March 2009. Retrieved 13 November 2006.
  13. ^ "The World War II droughts 1937–45". Climate Education. Australian Bureau of Meteorology. 1999. Archived from the original on 17 March 2009. Retrieved 13 November 2006.
  14. ^ Cary, Clif (1948). Cricket Controversy, Test matches in Australia 1946–47. T. Werner Laurie. pp. 179–180.
  15. ^ "The 1965–68 drought". Climate Education. Australian Bureau of Meteorology. 1999. Archived from the original on 17 March 2009. Retrieved 13 November 2006.
  16. ^ "Short but sharp – The 1982-83 droughts". Climate Education. Australian Bureau of Meteorology. Archived from the original on 17 March 2009. Retrieved 13 November 2006.
  17. ^ Rankin, Robert (1992). Secrets of the Scenic Rim: A Bushwalking and Rockclimbing Guide to South-east Queensland's Best Mountainous Area. Rankin. p. 151. ISBN 0-9592418-3-3.
  18. ^ Collie, Gordon (26 August 1995). "Worst drought of century cripples farmers". The Courier-Mail. p. 14.
  19. ^ a b Collie, Gordon (3 June 1995). "Water crisis threatens towns". The Courier Mail. p. 3.
  20. ^ Coleman, Matthew (30 August 1995). "Crops worth $50m lost". The Courier-Mail.
  21. ^ a b Collie, Gordon (22 October 1994). "Dry tears of despair". The Courier-Mail. p. 29.
  22. ^ "Recent rainfall, drought and southern Australia's long-term rainfall decline". Australian Bureau of Meteorology. Retrieved 25 January 2017.
  23. ^ "1998 Yearbook — Climate Variability and El Nino". Australian Bureau of Statistics. 27 February 1998. Retrieved 26 January 2017.
  24. ^ "Annual Australian Climate Summary 2001". Australian Bureau of Meteorology. 3 January 2002. Retrieved 26 January 2017.
  25. ^ "Annual Australian Climate Summary 2001". Australian Bureau of Meteorology. 6 January 2003. Retrieved 26 January 2017.
  26. ^ "Annual Australian Climate Summary 2004". Australian Bureau of Meteorology. 6 January 2005. Retrieved 26 January 2017.
  27. ^ "Annual Australian Climate Statement 2005". Australian Bureau of Meteorology. 4 January 2006. Retrieved 26 January 2017.
  28. ^ "Annual Australian Climate Statement 2006". Australian Bureau of Meteorology. 3 January 2007. Retrieved 26 January 2017.
  29. ^ "Annual Australian Climate Statement 2007". Australian Bureau of Meteorology. 3 January 2008. Retrieved 26 January 2017.
  30. ^ "Annual Australian Climate Statement 2009". Australian Bureau of Meteorology. 5 January 2010. Retrieved 26 January 2017.
  31. ^ "Annual Australian Climate Statement 2010". Australian Bureau of Meteorology. 5 January 2011. Retrieved 26 January 2017.
  32. ^ "Annual Australian Climate Statement 2011". Australian Bureau of Meteorology. Retrieved 26 January 2017.
  33. ^ Dairy farmers face tough times Archived 26 January 2012 at the Wayback Machine
  34. ^ ABS Water Account Australia 2004/05 figures quoted by Water and Cotton Fact Sheet of 13 February 2007 retrieved 5 March 2007 from Cotton Australia
  35. ^ Water and Cotton Fact Sheet of 13 February 2007 retrieved 5 March 2007 from Cotton Australia
  36. ^ "Rainfall deficiencies increase in Queensland and northeastern New South Wales". Climate: Drought: Archive. Australian Bureau of Meteorology. 7 August 2014.
  37. ^ "Rainfall deficiencies increase in Queensland and northeastern New South Wales". Climate: Drought: Archive. Australian Bureau of Meteorology. 7 August 2014.
  38. ^ "Annual Australian Climate Statement 2015". Australian Bureau of Meteorology. Retrieved 26 January 2017.
  39. ^ "Annual Australian Climate Statement 2016". Australian Bureau of Meteorology. Retrieved 26 January 2017.
  40. ^ "Annual Australian Climate Statement 2017". Australian Bureau of Meteorology. Retrieved 29 June 2019.
  41. ^ "Annual Australian Climate Statement 2018". Australian Bureau of Meteorology. Retrieved 29 June 2019.
  42. ^ "NSW 100 per cent in drought: minister". Sydney Morning Herald. 8 August 2018. Retrieved 29 June 2019.
  43. ^ "DROUGHT CONTINUES TO BITE DESPITE WELCOMED WIDESPREAD RAIN" (PDF). New South Wales Department of Primary Industry. 9 May 2019. Retrieved 29 June 2019.
  44. ^ "Almost two thirds of Queensland now drought declared". The Queensland Cabinet and Ministerial Directory. 1 May 2019. Retrieved 29 June 2019.
  45. ^ "Parts of Western Australia declared 'water deficient' as emergency supplies trucked in". The Guardian. 16 May 2019. Retrieved 29 June 2019.
  46. ^ "Eastern Australia drought dries up Murray-Darling water reserves". Grain Central. 9 April 2019. Retrieved 29 June 2019.
  47. ^ "Drought now officially our worst on record". farmonline.com.au. 18 July 2019. Retrieved 19 July 2019.
  48. ^ "Climate outlook for October to January". Bureau of Meteorology. 3 October 2019. Retrieved 6 October 2019.

External linksEdit