Open main menu

Doxapram hydrochloride (marketed as Dopram, Stimulex or Respiram) is a respiratory stimulant. Administered intravenously, doxapram stimulates an increase in tidal volume, and respiratory rate.

Clinical data
Routes of
ATC code
Legal status
Legal status
  • In general: ℞ (Prescription only)
CAS Number
PubChem CID
CompTox Dashboard (EPA)
ECHA InfoCard100.005.653 Edit this at Wikidata
Chemical and physical data
Molar mass378.507 g/mol g·mol−1
3D model (JSmol)

Mechanism of actionEdit

A vial of doxapram

Doxapram stimulates chemoreceptors in the carotid bodies of the carotid arteries, which in turn, stimulates the respiratory centre in the brain stem.


Doxapram is a white to off-white, odorless, crystalline powder that is stable in light and air. It is soluble in water, sparingly soluble in alcohol and practically insoluble in ether. Injectable products have a pH from 3.5-5. Benzyl alcohol or chlorobutanol is added as a preservative agent in the commercially available injections.


Doxapram is used in intensive care settings to stimulate the respiratory rate in patients with respiratory failure. It may be useful for treating respiratory depression in patients who have taken excessive doses of drugs such as buprenorphine or fentanyl analogues which may fail to respond adequately to treatment with naloxone.[1]

It is equally as effective as pethidine in suppressing shivering after surgery.[2]

Side effectsEdit

Side effects include high blood pressure, panic attacks, rapid heart rate, tremor, sweating, and vomiting. Convulsions have been reported. Its use is relatively contraindicated in people with coronary heart disease, epilepsy, and high blood pressure. It is also contraindicated in newborns and small children, mainly due to the presence of benzyl alcohol, which is included as a preservative.

See alsoEdit


  1. ^ Buprenorphine Drug Data Sheet
  2. ^ Singh, P; Dimitriou, V; Mahajan, RP; Crossley, AW (1993). "Double-blind comparison between doxapram and pethidine in the treatment of postanaesthetic shivering". British Journal of Anaesthesia. 71 (5): 685–8. doi:10.1093/bja/71.5.685. PMID 8251281.