Doctor Manhattan, often stylised as Dr. Manhattan, is a fictional character who appears in American comic books published by DC Comics. He debuted in the graphic novel miniseries Watchmen, published in 1986 and 1987. Doctor Manhattan was created by writer Alan Moore with artist Dave Gibbons.
Art by Neal Adams
|Created by||Alan Moore
|Alter ego||Dr. Jonathan 'Jon' Osterman|
|Place of origin||Watchmen's Earth|
|Team affiliations||The Crimebusters/Watchmen
United States Department of Defense
|Partnerships||Silk Spectre II|
Some of his powers are:
He was originally Dr. Jonathan Osterman, a nuclear physicist who in 1959 was transformed into one of the most supreme beings of DC Comics, after initially being disintegrated in an Intrinsic Field Subtractor and later reconstructing himself. Following his reanimation, he was immediately pressed into service by the United States government, who gave him the name Doctor Manhattan, after the Manhattan Project. He is the only character in the story that possesses actual superpowers.
The Watchmen series has been noted for addressing metaphysical issues and questions, Doctor Manhattan being the primary recipient. He is often used as an example of a posthuman god. Reception towards the character is positive, and he has appeared and has been mentioned in various forms of media. Billy Crudup portrayed Doctor Manhattan in the 2009 film adaptation directed by Zack Snyder. Doctor Manhattan later appeared in the Before Watchmen comic book prequel, with his own individual issue miniseries.
In 2016, as part of DC Comics' Rebirth campaign, Manhattan became a major antagonist, a factor that removed 10 years of history from DC characters following the Flashpoint event, creating the New 52 timeline in the process. His status as the major antagonist is confirmed by Geoff Johns in July 2017. Manhattan was later confirmed as a major character in Doomsday Clock.
Doctor Manhattan was partly based on DC Comics' Captain Atom who in Moore's original proposal was surrounded by the shadow of nuclear threat. However, the writer found he could do more with Manhattan as "a supreme super-hero" than he ever could have with Captain Atom. Moore sought to delve into nuclear physics and quantum physics in constructing the character of Dr. Manhattan. The writer believed that a character living in a quantum universe would not perceive time with a linear perspective, which would influence the character's perception of human affairs. Moore also wanted to avoid creating an emotionless character like Spock from Star Trek, so he sought for Dr. Manhattan to retain "human habits" and to grow away from them and humanity in general. Gibbons had created the blue character Rogue Trooper, and explained he reused the blue skin motif for Doctor Manhattan as it resembles skin tonally, but has a different hue. Moore incorporated the color into the story, and Gibbons noted the rest of the comic's color scheme made Manhattan unique. Moore recalled that he was unsure if DC would allow the creators to depict the character as fully nude, which partially influenced how they portrayed the character. Gibbons wanted to tastefully depict Manhattan's nudity, selecting carefully when full frontal shots would occur and giving him "understated" genitals—like a classical sculpture—so the reader would not initially notice it. Dr. Manhattan's forehead is marked with the atomic structure of hydrogen, which he put on himself, declining a helmet with the atom symbol.
Fictional character biographyEdit
Jonathan Osterman was born in 1929. His father was a watchmaker, and Jon planned to follow in his footsteps. When the US drops the atomic bomb on Hiroshima, Jon is sixteen. His father, confronted with the undeniable facts of the theory of relativity, declares his profession outdated and throws his son's watch-making parts out the windows, forcing him to instead work towards a career studying nuclear physics. The incident represents the turning point in Jon's potential future from watchmaker to nuclear physicist and foreshadows Doctor Manhattan's 'exterior' perception of time as predetermined and all things within it as so determined, including Doctor Manhattan's own reactions and emotions.
Jon Osterman attends Princeton University from 1948–58 and graduates with a Ph.D. in atomic physics. In early 1959, he moves to a research base at Gila Flats, where experiments are being performed concerning the 'intrinsic fields' of physical objects which, if tampered with, result in their disintegration. Here he meets Janey Slater, a fellow researcher; they eventually become lovers.
During a trip to New Jersey in July 1959, Jon and Janey visit an amusement park. Janey's watchband breaks, and the watch is damaged when a fat man steps on it. Jon decides that he can repair the watch, and tells Janey so. That night they sleep together.
One month later, in August, 1959, shortly after his thirtieth birthday, Jon plans to give Janey the repaired watch, only to discover he has left it in his lab coat which is inside the intrinsic field experiment test chamber. While Jon is inside the test chamber retrieving his coat the door closes, automatically locking as a safety feature. Unable to open the door or override the countdown, Osterman's colleagues—save for Janey, who cannot bear to see the last moment and flees the room—can only watch, horrified, as the countdown for the current experiment shortly reaches zero, and Jon has his 'intrinsic field' removed. Bathed in the radiant light, he is torn to pieces from the force of the generator, instantly vaporized and officially declared dead.
The following months see a series of strange events and apparitions at the research base, leading residents to speculate the area is now haunted. It becomes plain that Jon has been progressively reforming himself during this time. This progression is indicated by a series of partial bodily reappearances: first as a disembodied nervous system, including the brain and eyes; then as a circulatory system (November 10); then a partially muscled skeleton (November 14). Each time, the appearance only lasts for a few seconds. Jon fully reappears on November 22 as a tall, hairless, naked, blue-skinned man, glowing with a "flare of ultraviolet."
Jon gradually becomes a pawn of the United States government, though the means by which his loyalty is secured are never revealed; he is given the code name 'Doctor Manhattan', a reference to the Manhattan Project that, it is hoped, will discourage America's enemies. He is also provided with a costume which he grudgingly accepts, though he refuses to accept the icon design which is provided for him (this being a stylized orbital model of the atom). Instead, Jon chooses as his emblem a representation of a hydrogen atom, whose simplicity he declares to be something that kindles his respect; accordingly, he painlessly burns the mark into his forehead. This preference for material mechanisms marks the beginning of Jon's declining humanity, which is progressively mirrored by his gradual shedding of the uniform; by the end of the 1970s, he refuses to wear anything at all except for mandatory public appearances.
However, Jon's presence still succeeds in tipping the balance of the Cold War in the West's favor, and the United States consequently becomes more aggressive and adventurist during this period. His abilities also radically alter the world economy, as he can, for example, synthesize the massive amounts of lithium required for all motor vehicles to become electric. At President Richard Nixon's request, he brings America victory in the Vietnam war within three months. This victory distorts the American political process, as the 22nd Amendment is repealed and Nixon is then repeatedly re-elected (and is still serving as of 1985, the year in which Watchmen is set, having begun his fifth term). Moreover, indications in the story line suggest that, far from solving the problems underlying the international tension, Doctor Manhattan's presence in fact exacerbates them while stifling their expression, which inevitably builds towards disaster; the entire plot of Watchmen occurs during the countdown to a potential nuclear holocaust.
Since he works for the U.S. government, he is exempt from the provisions of the Keene Act, but spends much of his time doing advanced technology research and development, and physics research. He is single-handedly responsible for the shift to electric-powered vehicles (by synthesizing the needed elements and chemicals himself) and Adrian Veidt credits him with causing a huge leap forward in myriad areas of science and technology. As a result, the technology of the alternative 1985 of the Watchmen universe is far more advanced. After the death of his father in 1969, he does not conceal his birth name and is referenced as "Jon" or "Dr. Osterman".
During the first meeting of the Crimebusters superhero group, Laurie Juspeczyk, the second Silk Spectre, catches his eye. His relationship with Janey Slater ends acrimoniously shortly after, and he begins dating Laurie.
Events of WatchmenEdit
At the start of Watchmen, Doctor Manhattan is working in the Rockefeller Military Research Center for the U.S. government. He is living with the former Silk Spectre II, Laurie Juspeczyk.
It was there that Rorschach came to warn him and Laurie that the Comedian was dead, and all former costumed adventurers should watch out. Jon dismissed Rorschach by teleporting him out, and allowed Laurie to go out with Dan.
Jon attended the Comedian's funeral and reflected on their association in the Vietnam War. He sensed Moloch's presence.
He appeared in Benny Anger's show where he would be interviewed. Agent Forbes briefed him on the politics of the Cold War that he might be asked upon. However it was not what Manhattan was there for. After Doug Roth's allegations that Manhattan causes cancer to humans, a fray erupted and the journalists came towards him asking for details concerning his relationship to Janey Slater. Forbes attempted to guide Manhattan outside and hold off the journalists. Eventually Manhattan teleported everyone away.
He leaves Earth for Mars when he is accused of causing cancer in his close associates over the years. However, this was a frame arranged by Veidt to induce Osterman to leave, to remove his interference in his scheme to save the world. Eventually, he brings Laurie to Mars to discuss why he should do anything to aid humanity, an argument Laurie inadvertently wins when she goes through her life and realizes to her shock that her father is the Comedian, a man whom she despised for sexually assaulting her mother. From that revelation, Doctor Manhattan is amazed by the improbable chances that occurred to result in the birth of Laurie, which he sees as a stunning "thermodynamic miracle". By extension, this miracle can apply to any living thing on Earth, and so Doctor Manhattan decides to return to Earth to protect humanity rather than disregarding it as insignificant.
Although they return too late to stop Veidt's plan, they teleport to Antarctica to confront him. Veidt hinders Doctor Manhattan with a tachyon generator that interferes with Doctor Manhattan's ability to see the future, and then disintegrates him by subtracting his intrinsic field. To Veidt's surprise, Doctor Manhattan restores himself much more quickly this time (due to the fact that reassembling himself was the first trick he figured out) and many times larger than his usual size, but when Veidt reveals that his scheme, in which he used an engineered monster of his own creation to kill a large number of people in New York, appears to have averted the looming nuclear war by frightening the world's governments into cooperation, Doctor Manhattan realizes that to expose the scheme would be too dangerous for all life on Earth. Doctor Manhattan and the other superheroes except for Rorschach agree to keep quiet to preserve Veidt's results. Rorschach leaves on his own. Outside the compound, Jon confronts Rorschach, telling him that he cannot let him reveal the truth. In tears, Rorschach removes his mask, screaming for Jon to "do it". After a moment's hesitation he obliges, vaporizing Rorschach. Returning to Karnak, he sees Dan and Laurie together, apparently happy that they have begun a relationship.
At the end of Watchmen, Doctor Manhattan decides to depart Earth again, but he might return one day. Veidt is surprised by his decision, pointing out the apparent contradiction with Doctor Manhattan's renewed interest in human life, to which Doctor Manhattan suggests that he may "create some" life in another galaxy. When Veidt asks if his plan worked out in the end, Jon Osterman smiles and enigmatically replies "In the end? Nothing ends, Adrian. Nothing ever ends."
New 52 and DC RebirthEdit
In 2011, during the events of Flashpoint, the Flash attempted to revert his universe's timeline back to its original state, however, Dr. Manhattan used a misguided Pandora to convince Barry Allen to merge three separate timelines (the DC Universe, the Wildstorm Universe and select Vertigo titles) in order to create as a side-effect Prime Earth. The merger also enable him to erase ten years from that would-be reverted universe which not only de-aged all the residents of Barry's world by ten years but also caused the multiple resurrections of several known deceased characters with no explanation and made them lose some of their most important relationships with one another. During the New 52 he was apparently responsible for preventing the last wizard of the Council of Eternity from revealing to Pandora how to open the skull shaped box and later he killed Owlman and Metron after the former tries to access the secrets of the universe. He also caused Wally West to be removed from history by having Abra Kadabra stick him within the Speed Force, only for the youngster to end up being saved by the Flash himself, therefore initiating the events of DC Rebirth and kills Pandora after she finally realizes that he was the one responsible for all of the sins for which she has been blamed. Batman and Barry soon began their investigations about the unknown force behind these changes, and while they have no clear suspects so far, at least Abra Kadabra has demonstrated some knowledge about the force, as Lilith sensed 'Manhattan' was a prominent thought in Kadabra's mind in his latest confrontation with the Titans when he claimed responsibility for Wally being removed from history.
Later, the Reverse-Flash attacks Batman in the Batcave as he is studying the button left embedded within the wall of his Batcave, while the Flash is busy. Batman was nearly killed and outpaced by Thawne. When Thawne picks up the button, he is briefly teleported away, returning with the left half of his body charred to the bone while claiming before he died "God...I saw...God." Using the cosmic treadmill to chase after the radiation emitted from the button among the timestream, they discovered Thawne as he was trying to reach "God". Upon reaching the unseen figure, Thawne boasted his ability to exist as a paradox before he was vaporized by Doctor Manhattan, leaving only the button behind. Sometime later, Doctor Manhattan picked up the button as he recalled his dialogue with Laurie about being a puppet who can see strings.
It is implied that Manhattan's primary goal is to undermine the heroism of the DC heroes, as Pandora accuses him of being incapable of comprehending it, while Manhattan apparently went to great lengths to put Bruce Wayne in contact with the Flashpoint Thomas Wayne, who told his son to not be Batman before his 'death' and the destruction of the last of the Flashpoint timeline, which prompted Wayne to not respond to the Bat-Signal the following night. It has been confirmed that Doctor Manhattan was responsible for saving Jor-El from certain death when the planet Krypton exploded, yet he trapped Jor-El in a time bubble so he could watch his wife and world die, before casting him down to Earth to the most dangerous city on the planet. He would later take Jor-El again after the latter began realizing that humanity apparently was hopeless. By using multiple screens, Doctor Manhattan broadcast directly into Jor-El's eyes, so he could experience the very worst of humanity so he could finally accept that humanity was beyond saving. As a result, Jor-El assumed the identity of 'Mister Oz', assembling a group of people who share his vision so that he can convince his son to abandon Earth. However, when Jor-El begins to realize that he has been pushing his 'campaign' against his son too far, to the point of actively attacking Superman, he is pulled away, leaving Superman to acknowledge Jor-El's warnings even as he refuses to accept the idea that humanity is beyond saving.
Events of Doomsday ClockEdit
During the events of Doomsday Clock, seven years after the events set in the Watchmen universe, Ozymandias is determined to find Doctor Manhattan in order to restore the world from chaos, after his previous plan for world peace was exposed by Rorschach's journal. Using a machine on the Archie Owlship which was borrowed from Nite Owl II's lair, Ozymandias, alongside Rorschach II, Marionette, and Mime follow the electron particles of Doctor Manhattan to the DC Universe, where they land in Gotham City. It is also revealed that Doctor Manhattan is responsible for preventing the Comedian's death by teleporting him to the DC Universe.
Doctor Manhattan's body is humanoid, with a build similar to that of a tall muscular male. His height and relative size vary depending on his needs, but generally remains above 6 feet tall. He is completely blue (altering his shade and luminosity at will) and has no hair. On his forehead he has etched an image of a hydrogen atom. He did this when he was prepared by the military for unveiling to the general public. They presented him with a hat as a part of his uniform that had a group of crossing ellipses on it, intended to look like an atom (Jon did not see the resemblance). He told them that if he were to have a symbol it should at least be one that he respects.
As Doctor Manhattan his costume started out as a sort of black leotard, which presumably he created. As time progressed the costume shrank progressively to a pair of shorts, then a speedo, then a thong, then completely naked. He would eventually go on to wear nothing at all because he could not comprehend the need for clothing. His original costume was only created because it made those around him (including the general public) more comfortable.
Before the experiment Jon Osterman is human, of average height. He has brown hair and brown eyes. He is a professional physicist and is seen often wearing a suit.
Dr. Manhattan, though supremely powerful, suffers from a decreasing ability to relate to normal humans. Perhaps due to his perception of time and realisation of the deterministic universe, he begins to show symptoms of apathy. From his radically altered perspective, almost all human concerns appear pointless and without obvious merit.
He describes Laurie as his 'only remaining link to humanity'. This is demonstrated when the relationship ends, and Doctor Manhattan leaves Earth. This is also due to evidence coming to light that a number of those who were once close to him, including his former girlfriend Janey Slater, have come down with terminal cancer. Manhattan feels that he poses a threat to others, and he exiles himself to Mars, stating "I am tired of Earth, these people. I'm tired of being caught in the tangle of their lives." His interest in humanity is revived after he witnesses Laurie's epiphany that she is the daughter of the Comedian, reflecting on the sheer chance involved in life coming to being in any form, but after the Watchmen fail to prevent Ozymandias's destruction of New York, he departs Earth, reflecting that he may explore new life in other parts of the galaxy.
In DC Rebirth #1, Pandora accuses her killer - currently thought to be Doctor Manhattan - of believing in skepticism, doubt and corruption, proclaiming that he cannot understand the hope personified in the heroes of the DC Universe, and that they will "prove [him] wrong".
Powers and abilitiesEdit
Jon is the only character in Watchmen to possess superpowers. Throughout Watchmen, he is shown to be absolutely powerful and invulnerable to all harm; even when his body is disintegrated, he can reconstruct it in a matter of seconds and remains unharmed. He is capable of altering his size depending on his needs, for example, he reconstructed himself in a much bigger form. He can hurl huge objects effortlessly with his hands. He is also unable to exhaust himself. Jon has complete awareness of and control over atomic and subatomic particles. He is also an omnikinetic. He does not need air, water, food or sleep and is immortal. He can teleport himself and others over limitless distances. He is also capable of true flight, although he merely levitates around in most of his appearances. Due to his perception of time, he sees his past, present and future simultaneously.
In addition to these powers, Jon is able to phase any part of his body through solid objects without damaging them, produce multiple copies of himself which function independently of each other, project destructive energy, disintegrate people, create force fields, transmute, create and destroy matter, move objects without physically touching them (telekinesis), reverse entropy, repair anything no matter how severe the damage is, and, he suggests, create life. He also claims to have walked on the surface of the sun. At one point it is stated that, in the event of a nuclear war, he would be capable of destroying Soviet nuclear missiles while at the same time 'destroying' large areas of Russia. As a result of these capabilities, Jon becomes central to the United States' Cold War strategy of deterrence.
He effortlessly overpowered and disintegrated Pandora, who overpowered the Seven Deadly Sins with ease, with each Sin being capable of destroying a multiverse the size of DC Comics several times over.
He is also capable of manipulating reality as he sees fit, as seen when he erased ten years from the DC Universe, when Barry Allen tried to bring his original universe back to normal. The intervention of Jon caused the New 52 timeline to be formed, within which most superheroes are younger, less experienced and most of them lose their most important relationships before they even begin. Even Mister Mxyzptlk himself acknowledges Jon to be far more powerful than him. Such power makes him one of the most powerful beings in the DC Multiverse.
In the 2009 film adaptation Watchmen, physics professor James Kakalios of the University of Minnesota was used as a scientific consultant, and shed light on the potential scientific explanations of Doctor Manhattan's powers both in the film and the comic.
Kakalios explained that the intrinsic field has basis in reality in that it is a representation of a collection of the electromagnetic, and strong and weak nuclear forces. Kakalios explained that if a being were able to manipulate matter, such a being would have complete control over these three forces; hence, the 'intrinsic field' would exist. Kakalios also explained while it is unlikely, Doctor Manhattan's teleportation abilities could seemingly be achieved through quantum tunnelling, should Doctor Manhattan have control over his probability wave functions.
The character of Doctor Manhattan is one that invokes thought on the philosophy of metaphysics. There are various themes addressed throughout the Watchmen series from philosophy of time and eternalism, to determinism and its relationship to ethics, to addressing questions such as "What does it mean to be human?" and "Do the ends justify the means?".
The character is primarily cited as the representation of the potential side effects and dangers of a superintelligence, which include detachment from the rest of humanity and potentially characteristics of apathy.
In other mediaEdit
- In the Teen Titans Go! episode "Yearbook Madness," Doctor Manhattan is referenced when his signature appears in Starfire's yearbook, writing "Time is Meaningless and So Are You...Have a Great Summer."
- Doctor Manhattan will appear in HBO's Watchmen as one of the main protagonists.
- In 2009, a film adaptation titled Watchmen was released, starring Billy Crudup as Jon Osterman/Doctor Manhattan and directed by Zack Snyder. The movie received a polarized reaction from both audiences and critics. Some critics gave it overwhelmingly positive reviews for the dark and unique style on the superhero genre, the cast and the visual effects; while others derided it for the same reasons, as well as the R-rating (for "strong graphic violence, sexuality, nudity, and language"), the running time, and the much-publicized fidelity to the graphic novel. In the film, Doctor Manhattan is a CGI character modeled after Greg Plitt with voice, motion capture, and facial performance provided by Crudup. At the end of the film, Doctor Manhattan received blame for the destruction of Earth's major cities through Adrian Veidt's machination with exploding energy reactors he helped Doctor Manhattan create under the pretense of providing free energy for the world, allowing the United States and the U.S.S.R. to ally against Manhattan, their "common enemy", in the film, unlike his comic book counterpart, he establishes that he is not omnipresent.
- Doctor Manhattan appears in the 2009 video game series Watchmen: The End Is Nigh, voiced by Crispin Freeman.
References in other worksEdit
Doctor Manhattan has also been referenced or parodied in other forms of media, including:
- In The Simpsons episode 407 "Husbands and Knives" broadcast in 2007, infant versions of Doctor Manhattan along with Ozymandias, Rorschach, and Nite Owl II are shown riding a surfboard on the cover of a DVD of the fictional film Watchmen Babies in V for Vacation (a parody of Alan Moore's graphic novels Watchmen and V for Vendetta).
- In the Teen Titans Go! episode Yearbook Madness, Doctor Manhattan's is one of many DC superhero signatures in Starfire's yearbook.
- Doctor Manhattan, along with the other main characters of the graphic novel, are shown in Saturday Morning Watchmen, a 2009 Newgrounds and YouTube viral video which parodies the Watchmen series.
- In Countdown: Arena #4, a white-skinned lookalike of Doctor Manhattan was one of the alternate versions of Monarch summoned to the multiverse arena. Like all the others, this version was killed and his power added to Monarch's.
- In Final Crisis #2, the exiled Monitor Nix Uotan sketches a character resembling Doctor Manhattan. Grant Morrison stated in an interview that the Final Crisis two-part series Superman: Beyond will feature "Captain Atom from Earth 4, which is kind of a weird amalgam of the original Charlton universe and this kind of Watchmen parallel world." This character is named 'Captain Adam', and appears in Superman Beyond #1. He is blue-skinned and has the hydrogen atom mark of Doctor Manhattan, and is addicted to drugs which keep his "quantum senses" in check. When he is off the drugs, he becomes very similar to Doctor Manhattan in demeanor and powers, duplicating himself hundreds of times over to repair the Bleed Starship and allow the various Supermen to pilot the Thought-Robot Armor, which itself is confirmed to grant one powers capable of beating Captain Adam. However, even when he is using his full potential without the aid of drugs, Captain Adam has difficulty controlling his powers, something Doctor Manhattan never had a problem with.
- In 2000 AD #1594 Nikolai Dante meets an American resistance movement whose look is strongly based on the Watchmen characters; one strongly resembles Doctor Manhattan.
- Seth, a humanoid creature from Street Fighter IV, heavily resembles Dr. Manhattan in both appearance and personality.
- In Megaton Rainfall, the player character has a similar appearance and powers to Doctor Manhattan.
- "Watchmen Secrets Revealed - WatchmenComicMovie.com". www.watchmencomicmovie.com. Retrieved 2015-11-11.
- "A Portal to Another Dimension". The Comics Journal. July 1987.
- Kallies, Christy. "Under the Hood: Dave Gibbons". SequentialTart.com. July 1999. Retrieved on October 12, 2008
- Flashpoint #5 (August 2011)
- DC Universe: Rebirth one-shot (May 2016)
- Justice League Vol. 2 #0
- Justice League vol. 2 #50 (May 2016)
- The Flash: Rebirth one-shot (June 2016)
- Titans vol. 3, #5 (November 2016)
- Batman vol. 3 #21 (April 2017)
- The Flash vol. 5 #22 (May 2017)
- Batman vol. 3 #22 (may 2017)
- Action Comics #988
- Action Comics #991
- Doomsday Clock #1 (November 2017)
- Doomsday Clock #2 (December 2017)
- Doomsday Clock #3 (January 2018)
- DC Universe Rebirth Issue #1
- "Is human super-intelligence a bad idea?". io9. Retrieved 2015-11-11.
- ""Watchmen" (2008) TV Series". Internet Movie Database. Retrieved March 25, 2009.
- "Husbands and Knives". The Simpsons. Season 19. Episode 407. November 18, 2007. Fox Broadcasting Company.
- Partridge, Harry (5 March 2009). "Saturday Morning Watchmen". YouTube.com. Retrieved 10 March 2009.