Doctor Manhattan, often stylised as Dr. Manhattan, is a fictional character who appears in American comic books published by DC Comics. He debuted in the graphic novel miniseries Watchmen, published in 1986 and 1987. Doctor Manhattan was created by writer Alan Moore with artist Dave Gibbons.
Art by Neal Adams
|Alter ego||Dr. Jonathan 'Jon' Osterman|
|Place of origin||Watchmen's Earth|
United States Department of Defense
|Partnerships||Silk Spectre II|
Some of his powers are:
He was originally Dr. Jonathan Osterman, a nuclear physicist who in 1959 acquired superpowers after surviving being disintegrated in an Intrinsic Field Subtractor and reconstructing himself. Following his reanimation, he was immediately pressed into service by the United States government, who gave him the name Doctor Manhattan, after the Manhattan Project. He is the only character in the story that possesses actual superpowers.
The Watchmen series has been noted for addressing metaphysical issues and questions, Doctor Manhattan being the primary recipient. He is often used as an example of a posthuman god. Reception towards the character is positive and he has appeared and has been mentioned in various forms of media. Billy Crudup portrayed Doctor Manhattan in the 2009 film adaptation directed by Zack Snyder. Doctor Manhattan later appeared in the Before Watchmen comic book prequel, with his own individual issue miniseries.
In 2016, as part of DC Comics' Rebirth campaign, Manhattan became a major antagonist, a factor that removed 10 years of history from DC characters following the Flashpoint event, creating The New 52 timeline in the process. His status as the major antagonist is confirmed by Geoff Johns in July 2017. Manhattan was later confirmed as a major character in Doomsday Clock.
Doctor Manhattan was partly based on DC Comics' Captain Atom, who in Moore's original proposal was surrounded by the shadow of nuclear threat. However, the writer found he could do more with Manhattan as "a supreme super-hero" than he ever could have with Captain Atom. Moore sought to delve into nuclear physics and quantum physics in constructing the character of Dr. Manhattan. The writer believed that a character living in a quantum universe would not perceive time with a linear perspective, which would influence the character's perception of human affairs. Moore also wanted to avoid creating an emotionless character like Spock from Star Trek, so he sought for Dr. Manhattan to retain "human habits" and to grow away from them and humanity in general. Gibbons had created the blue character Rogue Trooper, and explained he reused the blue skin motif for Doctor Manhattan, as it resembles skin tonally, but has a different hue. Moore incorporated the color into the story, and Gibbons noted the rest of the comic's color scheme made Manhattan unique. Moore recalled that he was unsure if DC would allow the creators to depict the character as fully nude, which partially influenced how they portrayed the character. Gibbons wanted to tastefully depict Manhattan's nudity, selecting carefully when full frontal shots would occur and giving him "understated" genitals — like a classical sculpture — so the reader would not initially notice it. Dr. Manhattan's forehead is marked with the atomic structure of hydrogen, which he put on himself, declining a helmet with the atom symbol.
Fictional character biographyEdit
Jonathan Osterman was born in 1929. Jon planned to follow in his father's footsteps as a watchmaker, but when the U.S. drops the atomic bomb on Hiroshima, his father declares his profession outdated and instead forces him to work towards a career studying nuclear physics. The incident represents the turning point in Jon's potential future from watchmaker to nuclear physicist and foreshadows Doctor Manhattan's "exterior" perception of time as predetermined and all things within it as so determined, including Manhattan's own reactions and emotions.
Jon attends Princeton University and graduates with a Ph.D. in atomic physics. In early 1959, he moves to a research base at Gila Flats, where experiments are being performed concerning the "intrinsic fields" of physical objects which, if tampered with, result in their disintegration. Here he meets Janey Slater, a fellow researcher; they eventually become lovers. During a visit to an amusement park in New Jersey, Janey's wristwatch is broken, which Jon promises to fix. However, one month later, Jon discover he has left the repaired watch in his labcoat inside a test chamber. While Jon is inside, the door to the chamber closes and locks. Unable to open the door or override the countdown, Jon's body is torn to pieces from the force of the generator.
The following months see a series of strange events and apparitions at the research base, leading residents to speculate the area is now haunted. It becomes plain that Jon has been progressively reforming himself during this time. This progression is indicated by a series of partial bodily reappearances: first as a disembodied nervous system, including the brain and eyes; then as a circulatory system; then a partially muscled skeleton. Each time, the appearance only lasts for a few seconds. Jon fully reappears on as a tall, hairless, naked, blue-skinned man, glowing with a "flare of ultraviolet".
Jon gradually becomes a pawn of the United States government, which gives him the code name "Doctor Manhattan" — a reference to the Manhattan Project — and a costume which he grudgingly accepts. Doctor Manhattan chooses as his emblem a representation of a hydrogen atom, whose simplicity he declares to be something that kindles his respect; accordingly, he painlessly burns the mark into his forehead. This preference for material mechanisms marks the beginning of Manhattan's declining humanity, which is progressively mirrored by his gradual shedding of the uniform; by the end of the 1970s, he refuses to wear anything at all except for mandatory public appearances.
However, Manhattan's presence succeeds in tipping the balance of the Cold War in the West's favor, and the U.S. foreign policy becomes more militaristic as a result. At President Richard Nixon's request, he secures an American victory in the Vietnam War within three months, which subsequently allows Nixon to repeal the 22nd Amendment and serve up to five terms. Moreover, far from solving the problems underlying the international tension, Manhattan's presence in fact exacerbates them while stifling their expression, which inevitably builds towards disaster; the entire plot of Watchmen occurs during the countdown to a potential nuclear war.
Since he works for the government, Manhattan is exempt from a federal law outlawing costumed heroes, but spends much of his time conducting research. He is single-handedly responsible for the shift to electric-powered vehicles and Adrian Veidt credits him with causing a huge leap forward in myriad areas of science and technology. As a result, the technology of the alternative 1985 of the Watchmen universe is far more advanced. During the only meeting of the Crimebusters group, Manhattan becomes attracted to Laurie Juspeczyk, the second Silk Spectre. His relationship with Janey ends acrimoniously shortly after, and he begins dating Laurie.
Events of WatchmenEdit
At the start of Watchmen, Manhattan works at the Rockefeller Military Research Center, where he lives with Laurie. Rorschach comes to inform the two of the murder of Edward Blake, a.k.a. The Comedian, and warn that all former costumed adventurers are being targeted by a "mask killer". Manhattan dismisses Rorschach by teleporting him outside, and allows Laurie to go out with Dan Dreiberg, the second Nite Owl. Shortly afterwards, Manhattan attends Blake's funeral with Veidt and Dreiberg, reflects on his association with Blake during the Vietnam War, and senses the presence of the former villain Moloch.
During an appearance on a talk show, a reporter ambushes Manhattan with allegations that he caused cancer in his former associates, including Janey. When he transports himself to Mars, the Soviet Union exploits his absence by invading Afghanistan and sparking an international crisis. Eventually, Manhattan brings Laurie to Mars to discuss why he should aid humanity, an argument Laurie inadvertently wins when she realizes to her shock that her father is Blake, a man she despised for sexually assaulting her mother. From this revelation, Manhattan is amazed by the improbable chances that occurred to result in the birth of Laurie, which he sees as a stunning "thermodynamic miracle". By extension, this miracle can apply to any living thing on Earth, persuading Manhattan to return to Earth to protect humanity rather than disregarding it as insignificant.
It is revealed that Veidt framed Manhattan as part of his overall plot to avert World War III by attacking New York with an engineered monster, killing half of the city in the process. Although Manhattan and Laurie return too late to stop Veidt, they teleport to his base in Antarctica to confront him. Veidt tries to disintegrate Manhattan, only for Manhattan to restore himself more quickly than Veidt anticipated. However, upon seeing that Veidt's plan has averted war, Manhattan realizes that to expose him would be too dangerous for life on Earth and agrees to stay silent. Rorschach leaves with the intent to reveal the truth, causing Manhattan to vaporize him. Manhattan decides to depart Earth again, suggesting that he may create life in another galaxy. When Veidt asks if his plan worked out in the end, Manhattan replies, "In the end? Nothing ends, Adrian. Nothing ever ends".
New 52 and DC RebirthEdit
During the events of Flashpoint, Manhattan uses a misguided Pandora to convince Barry Allen to merge three separate timelines (the DC Universe, the Wildstorm Universe and select Vertigo titles) in order to create Prime Earth. The merger enables him to erase ten years from the reverted universe, which not only reverses the age of its inhabitants by ten years but also causes the multiple resurrections of several deceased characters. He stops the last wizard of the Council of Eternity from revealing to Pandora how to open the skull shaped box, and kills Owlman and Metron after the former tries to access the secrets of the universe.
Manhattan causes Wally West to be removed from history by having Abra Kadabra stick him within the Speed Force, only for West to be saved by Barry, therefore initiating the events of DC Rebirth. He also kills Pandora after she finally realizes that he was the one responsible for all of the sins for which she has been blamed. Barry and Batman investigate the unknown force behind these changes, learning from Lilith Clay that "Manhattan" was a prominent thought in Kadabra's mind when he claimed responsibility for removing Wally from history.
Eobard Thawne attacks Batman as he is studying a blood-stained smiley face button left embedded within the wall of the Batcave. When Thawne picks up the button, he is briefly teleported away, returning with the left half of his body charred to the bone; he claims to have seen "God" before he dies. Using the cosmic treadmill to chase after the radiation emitted from the button among the timestream, Batman and Barry discover Thawne as he was trying to reach "God". Upon reaching the unseen figure, Thawne boasted his ability to exist as a paradox before he was vaporized by Manhattan, leaving only the button behind. Sometime later, Manhattan picks up the button as he recalls dialogue with Laurie.
Manhattan puts Bruce Wayne in contact with the Flashpoint Thomas Wayne, who tells his son to not become Batman before his "death" and the destruction of the last of the Flashpoint timeline, prompting Bruce to not respond to the Bat-Signal the following night. Manhattan also saves Jor-El from the destruction of Krypton, before conditioning him to see only the very worst of humanity. Jor-El assumes the identity of Mister Oz and tries to convince his son Kal-El, or Superman, to abandon Earth. However, when Jor-El begins to realize that he has been pushing against his son too far, he is pulled away. Superman acknowledges Jor-El's warnings even as he rejects his misanthropy.
Events of Doomsday ClockEdit
During the events of Doomsday Clock, seven years after the events set in the Watchmen universe, Veidt is determined to find Manhattan in order to restore the world from chaos, after his previous plan for world peace was exposed by Rorschach's journal. Using a machine on the Owlship which was borrowed from Dan's hideout, Veidt, alongside Rorschach II, Marionette, and Mime follow the electron particles of Manhattan to the DC Universe, where they land in Gotham City. It is revealed that Manhattan is responsible for preventing the Comedian's death by teleporting him to the DC Universe.
Doctor Manhattan's body is humanoid, with a build similar to that of a tall muscular male. His height and relative size vary depending on his needs, but generally remains above 6 feet tall. He is completely blue (altering his shade and luminosity at will) and has no hair. On his forehead he has etched an image of a hydrogen atom. He did this when he was prepared by the military for unveiling to the general public. They presented him with a hat as a part of his uniform that had a group of crossing ellipses on it, intended to look like an atom (Jon did not see the resemblance). He told them that if he were to have a symbol it should at least be one that he respects.
As Doctor Manhattan his costume started out as a sort of black leotard, which presumably he created. As time progressed the costume shrank progressively to a pair of shorts, then a speedo, then a thong, then completely naked. He would eventually go on to wear nothing at all because he could not comprehend the need for clothing. His original costume was only created because it made those around him (including the general public) more comfortable.
Before the experiment Jon Osterman is human, of average height. He has brown hair and brown eyes. He is a professional physicist and is seen often wearing a suit.
Dr. Manhattan, though supremely powerful, suffers from a decreasing ability to relate to normal humans. Perhaps due to his perception of time and realisation of the deterministic universe, he begins to show symptoms of apathy. From his radically altered perspective, almost all human concerns appear pointless and without obvious merit.
He describes Laurie as his 'only remaining link to humanity'. This is demonstrated when the relationship ends, and Doctor Manhattan leaves Earth. This is also due to evidence coming to light that a number of those who were once close to him, including his former girlfriend Janey Slater, have come down with terminal cancer. Manhattan feels that he poses a threat to others, and he exiles himself to Mars, stating "I am tired of Earth, these people. I'm tired of being caught in the tangle of their lives." His interest in humanity is revived after he witnesses Laurie's epiphany that she is the daughter of the Comedian, reflecting on the sheer chance involved in life coming to being in any form, but after the Watchmen fail to prevent Ozymandias's destruction of New York, he departs Earth, reflecting that he may explore new life in other parts of the galaxy.
In DC Rebirth #1, Pandora accuses her killer - currently thought to be Doctor Manhattan - of believing in skepticism, doubt and corruption, proclaiming that he cannot understand the hope personified in the heroes of the DC Universe, and that they will "prove [him] wrong".
Powers and abilitiesEdit
Jon is the only character in Watchmen to possess superpowers. Throughout Watchmen, he is shown to be absolutely powerful and invulnerable to all harm; even when his body is disintegrated, he can reconstruct it in a matter of seconds and remains unharmed. He is capable of altering his size depending on his needs, for example, he reconstructed himself in a much bigger form. He can hurl huge objects effortlessly with his hands. He is also unable to exhaust himself. Jon has complete awareness of and control over atomic and subatomic particles. He is also an omnikinetic. He does not need air, water, food or sleep and is immortal. He can teleport himself and others over limitless distances. He is also capable of true flight, although he merely levitates around in most of his appearances. Due to his perception of time, he sees his past, present and future simultaneously.
In addition to these powers, Jon is able to phase any part of his body through solid objects without damaging them, produce multiple copies of himself which function independently of each other, project destructive energy, disintegrate people, create force fields, transmute, create and destroy matter, move objects without physically touching them (telekinesis), reverse entropy, repair anything no matter how severe the damage is, and, he suggests, create life. He also claims to have walked on the surface of the sun. At one point it is stated that, in the event of a nuclear war, he would be capable of destroying Soviet nuclear missiles while at the same time 'destroying' large areas of Russia. As a result of these capabilities, Jon becomes central to the United States' Cold War strategy of deterrence.
He effortlessly overpowered and disintegrated Pandora, who overpowered the Seven Deadly Sins with ease, with each Sin being capable of destroying a multiverse the size of DC Comics several times over.
He is also capable of manipulating reality as he sees fit, as seen when he erased ten years from the DC Universe, when Barry Allen tried to bring his original universe back to normal. The intervention of Jon caused The New 52 timeline to be formed, within which most superheroes are younger, less experienced and most of them lose their most important relationships before they even begin. Even Mister Mxyzptlk himself acknowledges Jon to be far more powerful than him. Such power makes him one of the most powerful beings in the DC Multiverse.
In the 2009 film adaptation Watchmen, physics professor James Kakalios of the University of Minnesota was used as a scientific consultant, and shed light on the potential scientific explanations of Doctor Manhattan's powers both in the film and the comic.
Kakalios explained that the intrinsic field has basis in reality in that it is a representation of a collection of the electromagnetic, and strong and weak nuclear forces. Kakalios explained that if a being were able to manipulate matter, such a being would have complete control over these three forces; hence, the "intrinsic field" would exist. Kakalios also explained while it is unlikely, Doctor Manhattan's teleportation abilities could seemingly be achieved through quantum tunnelling, should Doctor Manhattan have control over his probability wave functions.
The character of Doctor Manhattan is one that invokes thought on the philosophy of metaphysics. There are various themes addressed throughout the Watchmen series from philosophy of time and eternalism, to determinism and its relationship to ethics, to addressing questions such as "What does it mean to be human?" and "Do the ends justify the means?".
The character is primarily cited as the representation of the potential side effects and dangers of a superintelligence, which include detachment from the rest of humanity and potentially characteristics of apathy.
In other mediaEdit
- In the Teen Titans Go! episode "Yearbook Madness", Doctor Manhattan is referenced when his signature appears in Starfire's yearbook, writing "Time is Meaningless and So Are You...Have a Great Summer".
- Doctor Manhattan will appear in HBO's Watchmen as one of the main protagonists.
- In 2009, a film adaptation titled Watchmen was released, starring Billy Crudup as Jon Osterman/Doctor Manhattan and directed by Zack Snyder. The movie received a polarized reaction from both audiences and critics. Some critics gave it overwhelmingly positive reviews for the dark and unique style on the superhero genre, the cast and the visual effects; while others derided it for the same reasons, as well as the R-rating (for "strong graphic violence, sexuality, nudity, and language"), the running time, and the much-publicized fidelity to the graphic novel. In the film, Doctor Manhattan is a CGI character modeled after Greg Plitt with voice, motion capture, and facial performance provided by Crudup. At the end of the film, Doctor Manhattan received blame for the destruction of Earth's major cities through Adrian Veidt's machination with exploding energy reactors he helped Doctor Manhattan create under the pretense of providing free energy for the world, allowing the United States and the U.S.S.R. to ally against Manhattan, their "common enemy". In the film, unlike his comic book counterpart, he establishes that he is not omnipresent.
- Doctor Manhattan appears in the 2009 video game series Watchmen: The End Is Nigh, voiced by Crispin Freeman.
References in other worksEdit
Doctor Manhattan has also been referenced or parodied in other forms of media, including:
- In The Simpsons episode 407 "Husbands and Knives" broadcast in 2007, infant versions of Doctor Manhattan along with Ozymandias, Rorschach, and Nite Owl II are shown riding a surfboard on the cover of a DVD of the fictional film Watchmen Babies in V for Vacation (a parody of Alan Moore's graphic novels Watchmen and V for Vendetta).
- In the Teen Titans Go! episode Yearbook Madness, Doctor Manhattan's is one of many DC superhero signatures in Starfire's yearbook.
- Doctor Manhattan, along with the other main characters of the graphic novel, are shown in Saturday Morning Watchmen, a 2009 Newgrounds and YouTube viral video which parodies the Watchmen series.
- In Countdown: Arena #4, a white-skinned lookalike of Doctor Manhattan was one of the alternate versions of Monarch summoned to the multiverse arena. Like all the others, this version was killed and his power added to Monarch's.
- In Final Crisis #2, the exiled Monitor Nix Uotan sketches a character resembling Doctor Manhattan. Grant Morrison stated in an interview that the Final Crisis two-part series Superman: Beyond will feature "Captain Atom from Earth 4, which is kind of a weird amalgam of the original Charlton universe and this kind of Watchmen parallel world." This character is named 'Captain Adam', and appears in Superman Beyond #1. He is blue-skinned and has the hydrogen atom mark of Doctor Manhattan, and is addicted to drugs which keep his "quantum senses" in check. When he is off the drugs, he becomes very similar to Doctor Manhattan in demeanor and powers, duplicating himself hundreds of times over to repair the Bleed Starship and allow the various Supermen to pilot the Thought-Robot Armor, which itself is confirmed to grant one powers capable of beating Captain Adam. However, even when he is using his full potential without the aid of drugs, Captain Adam has difficulty controlling his powers, something Doctor Manhattan never had a problem with.
- In 2000 AD #1594 Nikolai Dante meets an American resistance movement whose look is strongly based on the Watchmen characters; one strongly resembles Doctor Manhattan.
- Seth, a humanoid creature from Street Fighter IV, heavily resembles Dr. Manhattan in both appearance and personality.
- In Megaton Rainfall, the player character has a similar appearance and powers to Doctor Manhattan.
- "Watchmen Secrets Revealed - WatchmenComicMovie.com". www.watchmencomicmovie.com. Retrieved 2015-11-11.
- "A Portal to Another Dimension". The Comics Journal. July 1987.
- Kallies, Christy. "Under the Hood: Dave Gibbons". SequentialTart.com. July 1999. Retrieved on October 12, 2008
- Flashpoint #5 (August 2011)
- DC Universe: Rebirth one-shot (May 2016)
- Justice League Vol. 2 #0
- Justice League vol. 2 #50 (May 2016)
- The Flash: Rebirth one-shot (June 2016)
- Titans vol. 3, #5 (November 2016)
- Batman vol. 3 #21 (April 2017)
- The Flash vol. 5 #22 (May 2017)
- Batman vol. 3 #22 (May 2017)
- Action Comics #988
- Action Comics #991
- Doomsday Clock #1 (November 2017)
- Doomsday Clock #2 (December 2017)
- Doomsday Clock #3 (January 2018)
- DC Universe Rebirth Issue #1
- "Is human super-intelligence a bad idea?". io9. Retrieved 2015-11-11.
- ""Watchmen" (2008) TV Series". Internet Movie Database. Retrieved March 25, 2009.
- "Husbands and Knives". The Simpsons. Season 19. Episode 407. November 18, 2007. Fox Broadcasting Company.
- Partridge, Harry (5 March 2009). "Saturday Morning Watchmen". YouTube.com. Retrieved 10 March 2009.