Divine Invincible Great General Cannon

Divine Invincible Great General Cannon also known as, "Weiyuan General Cannon" (simplified Chinese: 神威无敌大将军炮; traditional Chinese: 神威無敵大將軍炮) was a type of long-barreled heavy artillery in the Qing Dynasty, [3] built by Nan Huairen, [4] a Flemish Jesuit missionary in China, in the 15th year of Kangxi (1676). [5]

Divine Invincible Great General Cannon
National originQing Dynasty
FounderNan Huairen[2]
Named byEmperor Kangxi
Used byQing army
WarsSino-Russian border conflicts

Divine Invincible Great General Cannon was named by Emperor Kangxi himself.[6] The Divine Invincible Great General Cannon was made of bronze,[7] there were 52 cannons in total. [8]


Divine Invincible Great General Cannon weighs from 2,000 catty to 3,000 catty,[9] and is from 7 Chinese feet 3 Chinese inches to 8 Chinese feet long.[10]


In 1685, the Qing army used eight Divine Invincible Great General Cannons against the invading Russian army,[11] and these cannons played an important role in the Battle of Yaksa (雅克萨战役).[12] The Qing Empire won the battle and signed the Treaty of Nerchinsk with the Tsardom of Russia.[13]


In May 1975, the workers of Qiqihar Jianhua Machinery Factory (齐齐哈尔建华机械厂) found a Divine Invincible Great General Cannon used by the Qing army in the Battle of Yaksa.[14]


  1. ^ Liu Xu (1989). Ancient Chinese Artillery History. Shanghai People's Publishing House. pp. 87-. ISBN 978-7-208-00061-2.
  2. ^ Qing History Research Collection. China Renmin University Press. 1986. pp. 95-.
  3. ^ Liu Huawei (1 August 2013). A Brief Introduction to Chinese Culture. Economic Science Press. pp. 105-. ISBN 978-7-5141-3317-2.
  4. ^ "What is the merit and demerit of the Yaksa Victory?". Sina. Oct 14, 2014.
  5. ^ "Why did the Qing army like to use tiger shields so much?". NetEase News. Nov 20, 2017.
  6. ^ General Military History of China: Pre-Qing Military History. Military Science Press. 1998. pp. 435-.
  7. ^ Zhuang Kaige (1 January 2018). Subject Engraving. Zhejiang Photography Publishing House. pp. 60-. ISBN 978-7-5514-1917-8.
  8. ^ General History of Chinese Military. Military Science Press. 1998. pp. 371-.
  9. ^ Journal of Beijing Normal University (Social Sciences), Issues 25-29. Beijing Normal University. 1978. pp. 76-.
  10. ^ Historical Monthly. Historical Monthly Magazine Agency. 1995. pp. 101-.
  11. ^ Wang Zhaochun (1991). Chinese Firearms History. Military Science Press. pp. 262-. ISBN 978-7-80021-304-5.
  12. ^ Palace Museum Journal, Issues 1-4. Cultural Relics Press. 1986. pp. 53-.
  13. ^ Zhang Jie (2007). Manchu Essentials. China Social Sciences Press. pp. 102-. ISBN 978-7-5004-6013-8.
  14. ^ Wang Zhaochun (2007). Ancient Chinese Military Engineering and Technology History (Song, Yuan, Ming, and Qing Dynasties). Shanxi Education Press. pp. 498-. ISBN 978-7-5440-2797-7.