Diverterless supersonic inlet

A diverterless supersonic inlet (DSI) is a type of jet engine air intake used by some modern combat aircraft to control air flow into their engines. It consists of a "bump" and a forward-swept inlet cowl, which work together to divert boundary layer airflow away from the aircraft's engine. This eliminates the need for a splitter plate, while compressing the air to slow it down from supersonic to subsonic speeds. The DSI can be used to replace conventional methods of controlling supersonic and boundary-layer airflow.

Vought XF8U-3 Crusader III
Testing of the F-35 diverterless supersonic inlet on a modified F-16. The original intake is shown in the top image.
J-10B with a diverterless air intake displayed on Airshow China 2018

DSIs can be used to replace the intake ramp and inlet cone, which are more complex, heavy and expensive.[1]

Technical backgroundEdit

When an aircraft is flying, the speed of the air relative to the engine is equal to the plane's flight speed. However, current turbine engines are unable to handle supersonic airflow. This is because shock waves associated with supersonic speeds can damage or cause dangerous vibrations in turbine blades, resulting in loss of thrust or engine failure. Consequently, in aircraft travelling at supersonic speeds, the air entering the inlet must be slowed down to subsonic speeds before reaching the compressor and turbine blades of the jet engine. Additionally, the airflow must also be at the optimal speed and volume so as to offer maximum thrust.[2]

InletsEdit

Modern combat aircraft accomplish this in a variety of ways, through design of the inlet. The inlet sits upstream of the compressor and has a strong influence on engine net thrust. A well-designed inlet straightens the flow, and feeds the compressor with low-turbulence air at a relatively constant speed and volume. This is easy to achieve in subsonic aircraft such as passenger jets, which do not perform high-speed, high-G maneuvers that lead to turbulent airflow.[3] Inlets on subsonic aircraft are simple and shorter: an opening designed to minimize drag.[4]

On supersonic military jets, the inlets are usually much more complex and use shock waves to slow the air, and movable internal vanes to shape and control the flow. Supersonic flight speeds form shock waves in the intake system and reduce the recovered pressure at the compressor, so some supersonic intakes use devices, such as a cone or ramp, to increase pressure recovery by making more efficient use of shock waves. The complexity of these inlets increases with an increase in top speed. Speeds over Mach 2 require a much more elaborate inlet design. This limits most modern combat aircraft to top speeds of Mach 1.8-2.0.[citation needed]

Diverterless inletsEdit

The DSI bump functions as a compression surface and creates a pressure distribution that prevents the majority of the boundary layer air from entering the inlet at speeds up to Mach 2. In essence, the DSI does away with complex and heavy mechanical systems.

HistoryEdit

Initial research into the DSI was done by Antonio Ferri in the 1950s, and further developed & optimized by Lockheed Martin in the early 1990s using computational fluid dynamics. The first Lockheed DSI was flown on 11 December 1996 as part of a Technology Demonstration project. It was installed on an F-16 Block 30 fighter, replacing aircraft's original intake diverter. The modified F-16 demonstrated a maximum speed of Mach 2.0 (Mach 2.0 is the F-16's clean certified maximum speed) and handling characteristics similar to a normal F-16. It was also shown that subsonic specific excess power was slightly improved.

The DSI concept was introduced into the JAST/JSF program as a trade study item in mid-1994. It was compared with a traditional "caret" style inlet. The trade studies involved additional CFD, testing, and weight and cost analyses. A DSI was later incorporated into the design of the Lockheed Martin F-35 Lightning II after proving to be 30% lighter and showing lower production and maintenance costs over traditional inlets while still meeting all performance requirements.[1]

BenefitsEdit

Weight and complexity reductionEdit

Traditional aircraft inlets contain many heavy moving parts. In comparison, DSI eliminates all moving parts, which makes it far less complex and more reliable than earlier diverter-plate inlets. The removal of moving parts also reduces the weight of the aircraft. [5]

StealthEdit

DSIs improve the aircraft's very-low-observable characteristics by eliminating radar reflections between the diverter and the aircraft's skin.[1] Additionally, the "bump" surface reduces the engine's exposure to radar, significantly reducing a strong source of radar reflection[6] because they provide an additional shielding of engine fans against radar waves.

Analysts have noted that the DSI reduces the need for application of radar-absorbent materials.[1][7]

List of aircraft with DSIEdit

ActiveEdit

FutureEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b c d Hehs, Eric (15 July 2000). "JSF Diverterless Supersonic Inlet". Code One magazine. Lockheed Martin. Retrieved 11 February 2011.
  2. ^ http://kakunhome.tripod.com/aviation.htm
  3. ^ University presentation on JSF Program
  4. ^ Inlet Design and Inlet types, NASA.
  5. ^ F-35 JSF Technology
  6. ^ "Fast History: Lockheed's Diverterless Supersonic Inlet Testbed F-16" Archived September 7, 2013, at the Wayback Machine aviationintel.com, 13 January 2013
  7. ^ "J-20's Stealth Signature Poses Interesting Unknowns" Archived 2013-05-15 at the Wayback Machine. Aviation Week. Retrieved 13 January 2013
  8. ^ "歼-10B改进型". AirForceWorld.com. Archived from the original on 2013-08-05. Retrieved 2013-08-01.
  9. ^ "JL-9 Trainer Jet gets DSI inlet, Guizhou China". AirForceWorld.com. Archived from the original on 5 August 2013. Retrieved 29 Aug 2011.
  10. ^ "Paris Air Show 2011 - Naval air trainer unveiled by Chinese media". home.janes.com, 15 February 2012.
  11. ^ "AMCA could fly undetected during dangerous missions". OnManorama. February 5, 2020. Retrieved 2020-02-06.

External linksEdit