The Distomo massacre (Greek: Σφαγή του Διστόμου; German: Massaker von Distomo or Distomo-Massaker) was a Nazi war crime perpetrated by members of the Waffen-SS in the village of Distomo, Greece, in 1944, during the German occupation of Greece during World War II.
|Location||Distomo, Kingdom of Greece (under German-occupation)|
|Date||10 June 1944|
|Perpetrators||Karl Schümers, Fritz Lautenbach|
4th SS Polizei Panzergrenadier Division
On 10 June 1944, for over two hours, Waffen-SS troops of the 2nd company, I/7 battalion, 4th SS Polizei Panzergrenadier Division under the command of the 26-year-old SS-Hauptsturmführer Fritz Lautenbach went door to door and massacred Greek civilians as part of "savage reprisals" for a partisan attack upon the unit's convoy. A total of 228 men, women and children were killed in Distomo, a small village near Delphi. According to survivors, SS forces "bayoneted babies in their cribs, stabbed pregnant women, and beheaded the village priest." However, another source ("Life, The First Decade", Time Inc., 1979, page 138. Library of Congress catalog card number 79-88091) refers to "the 1,000 citizens slaughtered by the Germans".
Following the massacre, a Secret Field Police agent accompanying the German forces informed the authorities that, contrary to Lautenbach's official report, the German troops had come under attack several miles from Distomo and had not been fired upon "with mortars, machine-guns and rifles from the direction of Distomo". An inquiry was convened. Lautenbach admitted that he had gone beyond standing orders, but the tribunal found in his favour, holding that he had been motivated, not by negligence or ignorance, but by a sense of responsibility towards his men.
Four relatives of victims brought legal proceedings against the German government to court in Livadeia, Greece, demanding reparations. On October 30, 1997, the court ruled in favour of the plaintiffs and awarded damages of 28 million Euros. Eventually in May 2000, the Supreme Civil and Criminal Court of Greece, confirmed this ruling. The judgment, however, could not be enforced in Greece because, as necessary under Greek law, the execution of a judgment against a sovereign state is subject to the prior consent of the Minister of Justice, which was not given.
The plaintiffs brought the case to court in Germany, demanding the aforementioned damages be paid to them. The claim was rejected at all levels of German court, citing the 1961 bilateral agreement concerning enforcement and recognition of judgements between Germany and Greece, and Section 328 of the German Code of Civil Procedure. Both required that Greece have jurisdiction, which it does not as the actions in question were sovereign acts by a state. According to the fundamental principles of international law, each country is immune from another state's jurisdiction.
In November 2008, an Italian court ruled that the plaintiffs could take German property in Italy as compensation that was awarded by the Greek courts. The plaintiffs were awarded a villa in Menaggio, near Lake Como, which is owned by a German state nonprofit organization, as part of the restitution.
In December 2008, the German government filed a claim at the International Court of Justice in the Hague. The German claim was that the Italian courts should have dismissed the case under the international law of sovereign immunity.
In January 2011, the Prime Minister of Greece, George Papandreou, announced that the Greek Government would be represented at the International Court of Justice in relation to the claim for reparations by relatives of victims. In its 2012 final judgement, the court ruled that Italy had violated Germany's state immunity, and directed that the judgment by the Italian courts be retracted. In 2014 the Italian Constitutional Court ruled that sovereign immunity for crimes such as Distomo violated the core rights guaranteed by the Italian constitution. Sovereign immunity would therefore no longer be applicable law in Italy for the war crimes cases in question. New claims for compensation for the Distomo massacre could therefore be brought before Italian courts.
A Song for Argyris is a 2006 documentary film that details the life story of Argyris Sfountouris, a survivor of the massacre.
The massacre is described in Peter Nestler's experimental documentary Von Griechenland (1966).
- Stein, George. The Waffen-SS: Hitler's Elite Guard at War 1939–1945, Cornell University Press, 1984, p. 277.
- "Greek Government response to ICJ Ruling" Embassy of Greece.
- "Greeks lose Nazi massacre claim." 26 June 2003 BBC.
- Mark Mazower, Inside Hitler's Greece, Yale University Press, New Haven and London, 1993, pp. 212–214.
- "German Supreme Court: Distomo Massacre Case, BGH - III ZR 245/98 (June 26, 2003)". International Law In Brief. American Society of International Law. 25 July 2003. Archived from the original on October 9, 2007.
- "Greece to join Distomo trial". Kathimerini. 2011-01-12. Retrieved 13 January 2011.
- Eleni Chrepa; Maria Petrakis (2011-01-12). "Greece to Join Hague German War Reparations Case". Bloomberg. Retrieved 13 January 2011.
- "International Court of Justice Ruling." International Court of Justice 3 February, 2012 Archived 2016-12-13 at the Wayback Machine.
- "Hoping for Distomo – Of time and transition" Juwiss, 10 June, 2016.
- What the Germans did to Greece. Life Magazine, Nov. 27, 1944, pp 21-27. Also on google books.
- Municipality of Distomo on massacre
- German website describing the Distomo massacre
- Dutch website with reference to the Distomo massacre
- Ein Lied für Argyris (A Song for Argyris). A documentary with Argyris Sfountouris, a survivor of the massacre.
- Chandrinos, Iasonas (2012). Η σφαγή στο Δίστομο και στο Καλάμι (1944). Encyclopedia of the Hellenic World, Boeotia (in Greek). Foundation of the Hellenic World. Retrieved 9 July 2012.
- Karantsalis, Theo (2020). Distomo, still we mourn. The National Herald, Jun. 10, 2020. https://www.thenationalherald.com/opinions_columnists/arthro/distomo_still_we_mourn-444433/