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In telecommunications, dirty paper coding (DPC) or Costa precoding is a technique for efficient transmission of digital data through a channel subjected to some interference known to the transmitter. The technique consists of precoding the data in order to cancel the interference. Dirty-paper coding achieves the channel capacity, without a power penalty and without requiring the receiver to know the interfering signal.

The term dirty paper coding was coined by Max Costa[1] who compared the technique to writing a message on a piece of paper which is partially soiled with random ink strokes or spots. By erasing and adding ink in the proper places, the writer can convey just as much information as if the paper were clean, even though the reader does not know where the dirt was. In this analogy, the paper is the channel, the dirt is interference, the writer is the transmitter, and the reader is the receiver.

Note that DPC at the encoder is an information-theoretic dual of Wyner-Ziv coding at the decoder.[citation needed]



Instances of dirty paper coding include Costa precoding (1983).[1] Suboptimal approximations of dirty paper coding include Tomlinson-Harashima precoding (THP) published in 1971[2][3] and the vector perturbation technique of Hochwald et al. (2005).[4]

Design considerationsEdit

DPC and DPC-like techniques require knowledge of the interference state in a non causal manner, such as channel state information of all users and other user data. Hence, the design of a DPC-based system should include a procedure to feed side information to the transmitters.


In 2003, Caire and Shamai[5] applied DPC to the multi-antenna multi-user downlink, which is referred to as the 'broadcast channel' by information theorists. Since then, there has been widespread use of DPC in wireless networks[6] and into an interference aware coding technique for dynamic wireless networks.[7]

Recently, DPC has also been used for "informed digital watermarking" and is the modulation mechanism used by 10GBASE-T.

See alsoEdit


  1. ^ a b M. Costa (May 1983). "Writing on dirty paper" (PDF). IEEE Transactions on Information Theory. 29 (3): 439–441. doi:10.1109/TIT.1983.1056659. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2015-01-21.
  2. ^ M. Tomlinson (March 1971). "New automatic equalizer employing modulo arithmetic". Electron. Lett. 7 (5–6): 138–139. doi:10.1049/el:19710089.
  3. ^ H. Harashima; H. Miyakawa (August 1972). "Matched-transmission technique for channels with intersymbol interference". IEEE Trans. Commun. COM-20: 774–780.
  4. ^ B. M. Hochwald; C. B. Peel; A. L. Swindlehurst (March 2005). "A vector-perturbation technique for near-capacity multiantenna multiuser communication - Part II: Perturbation". IEEE Trans. Commun. 53 (3): 537–544. CiteSeerX doi:10.1109/TCOMM.2004.841997.
  5. ^ Caire, Guissepe; Shamai, Shlomo (July 2003). "On the Achievable Throughput of a Multiantenna Gaussian Broadcast Channel". IEEE Transactions on Information Theory. 49 (3).
  6. ^ C. T. K. Ng; A. Goldsmith (October 2004). "Transmitter Cooperation in Ad-Hoc Wireless Networks: Does Dirty-Paper Coding Beat Relaying?". IEEE Information Theory Workshop. San Antonio, Texas. pp. 277–282.
  7. ^ Momin Uppal; Zhixin Liu; Vladimir Stankovic; Anders Høst-Madsen; Zixiang Xiong (February 2007). "Capacity Bounds and Code Designs for Cooperative Diversity". Information theory and applications.

External linksEdit