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A dharmapāla (Wylie: chos skyong, Chinese: 達磨波羅, 達摩波羅, 護法神, 護法鬼神, 諸天鬼神, 護法龍天, 諸天善神, Japanese: 達磨波羅, 護法善神, 護法神, 諸天善神, 諸天鬼神, 諸天善神諸大眷屬) is a type of wrathful god in Buddhism. The name means "Dharma protector or defender" in Sanskrit, and the dharmapālas are also known as the Defenders of the Law (Dharma), or the Protectors of the Law.
A protector of Buddhist dharma is called a dharmapala in Buddhism. They are typically divinities, usually depicted with wrathful iconography in the Mahayana and tantric traditions of Buddhism. The wrath depicts their believed willingness to defend and guard Buddhist followers from dangers and enemies. The Aṣṭagatyaḥ (the eight kinds of nonhuman beings) is one category of dharmapālas, which includes the Garuda, Deva, Naga, Yaksha, Gandharva, Asura, Kinnara and Mahoraga.
In Vajrayana iconography and thangka depictions, dharmapālas are fearsome beings, often with many heads, many hands, or many feet. Dharmapālas often have blue, black or red skin, and a fierce expression with protruding fangs. Although dharmapālas have a terrifying appearance and countenance, they are all bodhisattvas or buddhas, meaning that they are embodiments of compassion that act in a wrathful way for the benefit of sentient beings.
The devotional worship of dharmapālas in the Tibetan tradition is traceable to early 8th-century.
In Tibet, principal Dharmapālas include:
- Mahakala (Tib. Nagpo Chenpo)
- Yama (Tib. Shinje)
- Yamantaka (Tib. Shinje Shed)
- Hayagriva (Tib. Tamdrin)
- Vaisravana (Tib. Kubera)
- Shri Devi (Tib. Palden Lhamo)
- Ekajaṭī (Tib. ral chig ma)
- Rāhula (Tib. gza)
- Vajrasādhu (Tib. Dorje Legpa)
- Brahma (Tib. "Tshangs Pa")
- Maharakta (Tib. tsog gi dag po, mar chen)
- Kurukulla (Tib. rig che ma)
- Takkiraja (Vajrayaksa) (Tib. du pai gyal po)
- Prana Atma (Tib. Begtse)
In Tibet, most monasteries have a dedicated dharmapāla which was originally comparable to a genius loci. The many forms of Mahakala, for example, are emanations of Avalokiteshvara. Kalarupa, and Yamantaka are considered by practitioners to be emanations of (Manjushri) the Bodhisattva of Wisdom.
The main functions of a dharmapāla are said to be to avert the inner and outer obstacles that prevent spiritual practitioners from attaining spiritual realizations, as well as to foster the necessary conditions for their practice.
In Japanese Shingon Buddhism, a descendant of Tangmi, dharmapālas such as Acala and Yamantaka are classified as Wisdom Kings. Other dharmapālas, notably Mahakala, belong to the Deva realm, the fourth and lowest class in the hierarchy of honorable beings.
- 「梵天帝釋二大天王 日本國中大小神祇 諸天善神 諸大眷屬」（般若心經奉讚文）
- Robert E. Buswell Jr.; Donald S. Lopez Jr. (2013). The Princeton Dictionary of Buddhism. Princeton University Press. pp. 249–250. ISBN 978-1-4008-4805-8.
- Heart Jewel: The Essential Practices of Kadampa Buddhism, pages 71-3, Tharpa Publications (2nd. ed., 1997) ISBN 978-0-948006-56-2
- 曼荼羅 GIALABA
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