Democratic Labour Party (Australia)

The Democratic Labour Party (DLP), formerly the Democratic Labor Party, is an Australian political party. It broke off from the Australian Labor Party (ALP) as a result of the 1955 ALP split, originally under the name Australian Labor Party (Anti-Communist), and was renamed the Democratic Labor Party in 1957. In 1962, the Queensland Labor Party, a breakaway party of the Queensland branch of the Australian Labor Party, became the Queensland branch of the DLP.[7]

Democratic Labour Party
AbbreviationDLP
PresidentRosemary Lorrimar[1]
Vice PresidentFrances Beaumont
SecretaryStephen Campbell[1]
Founded1955; 66 years ago (1955), (as Australian Labor Party (Anti-Communist))
Split fromLabor Party
HeadquartersMelbourne, Victoria, Australia
Youth wingYoung Democratic Labour Association (YDLA)
Ideology
Political position
Colours   Black and gold
Website
dlp.org.au

The DLP was represented in the Senate from its formation through to 1974. The party held or shared the balance of power on several occasions, at its peak winning 11 percent of the vote in 1970 and holding five out of 60 seats. It has never achieved representation in the House of Representatives, but nonetheless remained influential in Australia's instant-runoff voting system by recommending preference allocations. With anti-communism as a strong priority, the DLP typically directed that its voters preference the Liberal Party and Country Party ahead of the ALP, contributing to the Coalition's electoral dominance in the 1950s and 1960s. The party also won seats in the state parliaments of Victoria, Queensland and New South Wales.

A majority of the Democratic Labor Party voted to re-affiliate with the Australian Labor Party in 1978, however, the Victorian branch of the DLP voted against this move and maintained the independent party. While continuing to contest elections, the DLP had no parliamentary representation for a period of 30 years from 1976 to 2006. It elected members to the Victorian Legislative Council in 2006 and 2014 and a single senator in 2010, with a platform focused more on social conservatism. In 2013, the party changed their name from the Democratic Labor Party to the Democratic Labour Party, as a move away from the English-language spelling reform advocated by Labor.[8]

HistoryEdit

OriginsEdit

 
Historic logo of the Democratic Labor Party

The Australian Labor Party (Anti-Communist) was formed as a result of a split in the Australian Labor Party (ALP) which began in 1954.[9] The split was between the party's national leadership, under the then party leader Dr H. V. Evatt, and the majority of the Victorian branch, which was dominated by a faction composed largely of ideologically-driven anti-Communist Catholics.[10] Many ALP members during the Cold War period, most but not all of them Catholics, became alarmed at what they saw as the growing power of the Communist Party of Australia within the country's trade unions. These members formed units within the unions, called Industrial Groups, to combat this alleged infiltration.[11]

The intellectual leader of the Victorian Catholic wing of the ALP (although not actually a party member)[citation needed] was B. A. Santamaria,[12] a lay Catholic anti-Communist activist, who acquired the patronage of Dr Mannix.[13] Santamaria headed The Catholic Social Studies Movement (often known as The Movement),[14] modeled on Catholic Action groups in Europe[15] and, ironically, in organizational terms, on some of the methods employed by its principal target, the Communist Party of Australia.[16] That group later became the National Civic Council (NCC).[17] Evatt denounced the "Movement" and the Industrial Groups in 1954, alleging they were trying to take over the ALP and turn it into a European-style Christian Democratic party.[18]

At the 1955 ALP national conference in Hobart, Santamaria's parliamentary supporters in the federal and Victorian parliaments were expelled from the ALP. A total of seven Victorian federal MPs and 18 state MPs were expelled. The federal MPs were: Tom Andrews, Bill Bourke, Bill Bryson, Jack Cremean, Bob Joshua, Stan Keon and Jack Mullens.[citation needed] In New South Wales, the Roman Catholic Archbishop of Sydney, Norman Cardinal Gilroy, the first native-born Australian Roman Catholic prelate, opposed the Movement's tactics, and there was no party split in that state.

The expelled ALP members formed the Australian Labor Party (Anti-Communist) under the influence of B. A. Santamaria.[19]

1950s to 1970sEdit

1955 electionsEdit

On the night of 19 April 1955, Liberal and Country Party leader Henry Bolte moved a motion of no-confidence against John Cain's Labor government in the Victorian Legislative Assembly. After twelve hours of debate on the motion, in the early hours of 20 April, 11 of the expelled Labor members crossed the floor to support Bolte's motion.[20] With his government defeated, Cain sought and received a dissolution of parliament later that day, with the election set down for 28 May 1955.[21][22]

At the election, 11 of the 12 expelled MPs in the Victorian Legislative Assembly, as well as other candidates, and the one MP facing re-election in the Victorian Legislative Council lost their seats. The party drew 12.6% of the vote, mainly from the ALP, which was directed to the non-Labor parties. Labor won 37.6% of the vote and 20 seats to the Liberals' 34 and the Country Party's ten. The Cain Labor Government lost government at the 1955 election. Only one of the expelled Labor members, Frank Scully, was re-elected for the seat of Richmond.[citation needed] Scully had been a Minister in the Cain Government and a member of the Movement, and was expelled from the ministry and the ALP as part of the 1955 split.[23][24] Five other MPs whose terms had not expired remained in the Legislative Council until the expiry of their terms at the 1958 Victorian election, and all who recontested their seats were defeated.

At the 1955 federal election held in December, all the 7 expelled federal MPs were defeated. However, Frank McManus was elected as a senator for Victoria at the 1955 election, and successful ALP candidate George Cole had chosen before the election to become part of this party.

MembershipEdit

The parliamentary membership of the ALP (Anti-Communist) was almost entirely Roman Catholic of Irish descent.[25][26] The only two non-Catholics were its federal leader, Bob Joshua, who represented Ballarat in the Australian House of Representatives, and Jack Little, who led the party in the Victoria Legislative Council between 1955 and 1958. It has been suggested that the party was substantially a party of Irish-ethnics, a result of the ALP split of 1955 being a 'de-ethnicisation', a forcible removal of the Irish-Catholic element within the ALP.[27] However, many ALP (Anti-Communist) members were not of Irish descent. The party attracted many voters among migrants from Catholic countries in southern Europe, and among anti-Communist Eastern European refugees.

A significant[clarification needed] minority of its voters were also non-Catholics.[28] Journalist Don Whitington argued in 1964 that the DLP, as a basically sectarian party, was a most dangerous and distasteful force in Australian politics.[29] Whitington observed that the party was backed by influential sections of the Roman Catholic Church, and that although the party professed to exist primarily to combat communism, it had less commendable reasons behind its coming into being.[29] Daniel Mannix, the Roman Catholic Archbishop of Melbourne, was a DLP supporter, as were other influential clerics.[citation needed]

Democratic Labor PartyEdit

In 1957, the party changed its name to the Democratic Labor Party (DLP). In the same year, the Labor Party split in Queensland following the expulsion of Vince Gair, a conservative Catholic, from the party. He and his followers formed the Queensland Labor Party, which, in 1962, became the Queensland branch of the DLP.[7]

Between 1955 and 1974 the DLP was able to command a significant vote, particularly in Victoria and Queensland, with their large numbers of Catholics. During the period the party held between one and five seats in the Senate (which is elected by proportional representation). The DLP Senate leaders were George Cole (from Tasmania; 1955–1965),[30] Vince Gair (from Queensland; 1965–1973),[31] and Frank McManus (from Victoria; 1973–1974).[32] Other DLP Senators were Condon Byrne (from Queensland), Jack Kane[33] (from New South Wales), and Jack Little, a Protestant (from Victoria).

No DLP Senators or state politicians were ever elected in South Australia or Western Australia. Owing largely to demographic reasons, the ALP did not split in these states, although some lay branch members switched to the new party once it had been established. As the ALP and the conservative parties traditionally held approximately equal numbers of seats in the Senate, the DLP was able to use the balance of power in the Senate to extract concessions from Liberal governments, particularly larger government grants to Catholic schools, greater spending on defence, and non-recognition of the People's Republic of China.[citation needed]

During this period the DLP exercised influence by directing its preferences to Liberal candidates in federal and state elections (see Australian electoral system), thus helping to keep the ALP out of office at the federal level and in Victoria. The DLP vote for the House of Representatives gradually declined during the 1960s, but remained strong enough for the Liberals to continue to need DLP preferences to win close elections.

After Evatt's retirement in 1960, his successor Arthur Calwell, a Catholic, tried to bring about a reconciliation between the ALP and the DLP. Negotiations were conducted through intermediaries, and in 1965 a deal was almost done. Three out of four of the ALP's parliamentary leaders agreed to a deal. However, Calwell refused to share power within the party with the DLP leadership on a membership number basis, so the deal failed. Santamaria later claimed that had he accepted, Calwell could have become Prime Minister.[34] Indeed, at the 1961 federal election Labor came up just two seats short of toppling the Coalition. One of those seats was Bruce, in the DLP's heartland of Melbourne. DLP preferences allowed Liberal Billy Snedden to win a paper-thin victory. Although the Coalition was only assured of a sixth term in government later in the night with an even narrower win in the Brisbane-area seat of Moreton, any realistic chance of a Labor win ended with the Liberals retaining Bruce. Without Bruce, the best Labor could have done was a hung parliament.

At the 1969 federal election, DLP preferences kept Calwell's successor Gough Whitlam from toppling the Coalition, despite winning an 18-seat swing and a majority of the two-party vote. DLP preferences in four Melbourne-area seats allowed the Liberals to narrowly retain them; had those preferences gone the other way, Labor would have garnered the swing it needed to make Whitlam Prime Minister.[35]

The DLP's policies were traditional Labor policies such as more spending on health, education and pensions, combined with strident opposition to communism, and a greater emphasis on defence spending.[36] The DLP strongly supported Australia's participation in the Vietnam War.[citation needed]

From the early 1960s onward the DLP became increasingly socially conservative, opposing homosexuality, abortion, pornography and drug use. This stand against "permissiveness" appealed to many conservative voters as well as the party's base among Catholics. Some members of the DLP disagreed with this, believing the party should stay focused on anti-communism.[37]

The highest DLP vote was 11.11 per cent, which occurred at the 1970 half-senate election. Whitlam and the ALP won government in the 1972 election, defeating the DLP's strategy of keeping the ALP out of power.[citation needed]

DemiseEdit

In 1973, it was reported that the Country Party and the DLP were considering a merger. In response, Gough Whitlam said he "would be delighted to see 'the old harlot churched'".[38] The following year, Whitlam appointed Gair as ambassador to the Republic of Ireland in a successful bid to split the DLP and remove its influence. The party lost all its Senate seats at the 1974 federal election.

In 1978, all state branches of the Democratic Labor Party voted to dissolve the party and re-affiliate with the Australian Labor Party.[39] However, three-quarters of the Victorian branch executive disagreed with the vote, and the Victorian branch remained existing as the only existing Democratic Labour Party branch.[39]

Return to parliamentEdit

2006 State ElectionEdit

At the 2006 Victorian election, the DLP won parliamentary representation for the first time since the 1970s when it won a seat in the Victorian Legislative Council, after fielding candidates in the eight regions of the reformed Council, where proportional representation gave the party the best chance of having members elected. The DLP received 2.7 per cent of the primary vote in the Western Victoria Region, enough to elect Peter Kavanagh on ALP preferences. The party briefly looked set to have a second member elected, party leader John Mulholland, in the Northern Metropolitan Region on 5.1 per cent, but that result was overturned after a recount.[40] Following the election of Kavanagh, attention was given to the DLP platform of opposition to abortion and poker machines.[41]

The Labor government required an additional two non-ALP upper house members to pass legislation, which gave the balance of power to the Greens who held three seats. Kavanagh failed to retain his seat at the 2010 Victorian election.

In late August 2009, Melbourne newspaper The Age reported that the DLP was facing several internal divisions between Kavanagh's faction, which also sought to include evangelical and fundamentalist Protestants within the party, and 'hardline' conservative Catholics. Right to Life Australia President Marcel White and a close associate, Peter McBroom, were reported to be emphasising Catholic doctrinal and devotional concerns, like Marian apparitions, Catholic prayer, praying the rosary and campaigns against the "evils of contraception". Kavanagh was reported as threatening to leave the organisation if the 'hardline' elements were to triumph within the Victorian DLP.[42] In the end, the minority 'hardline' group was expelled from the party.

2010 Federal ElectionEdit

Shortly after counting began in the aftermath of the 2010 federal election, DLP candidate, federal DLP vice-president, and state DLP president John Madigan looked likely to be elected as the sixth and final Senator for Victoria, which was confirmed a few weeks later. Preference counts indicated that the primary DLP vote of 2.33 per cent (75,145 votes) in Victoria reached the 14.3 per cent quota required by gaining One Nation, Christian Democratic and Building Australia preferences to edge out Steve Fielding of the Family First Party who received a primary vote of 2.64 per cent. The DLP received Family First preferences, and when the Australian Sex Party candidate was excluded, the DLP gained Liberal Democratic Party preferences, overtaking the third Liberal/National candidate and gaining their preferences to win the last seat.[43][44][45]

Elected for a six-year term from 1 July 2011, Madigan was the first Senator to be elected as a federal member of the Democratic Labor Party of Australia since the 1970 Senate-only election.[46] Madigan was in a balance of power position following the 2013 election where an additional six non-government Senators were required to pass legislation. In his maiden speech to the Senate, Madigan denounced Victoria's "inhumane" abortion laws and committed to help restore Australia's dwindling manufacturing sector. He called for a "good Labor government that will bring something better to the people". He said that the DLP and ALP differed in a number of ways, stating:[47][48]

In December 2011, Madigan launched the Australian Manufacturing and Farming Program, with Senator Nick Xenophon and MP Bob Katter, an initiative to provide a forum for discussion of issues impacting manufacturers and farmers, together with politicians.[49] As a representative of the DLP, Madigan took an unashamed anti-abortion stance.[50] His additional publicly stated positions on behalf of the DLP included opposition to same-sex marriage;[51] opposition to the sale of public infrastructure;[51] opposition to a carbon tax, stating "We're not in favour of a carbon tax because we believe it's a tax on people and a tax on life";[51] an advocate for shops closing at midday on Saturdays;[50] and at the Inaugural Jack Kane dinner in July 2011, Madigan advocated Chifley protectionist economics.[52] Also, Madigan has publicly expressed his concern for human rights in West Papua.[53][54]

Infighting and financial issuesEdit

It was reported in June 2010 that the party was on the brink of collapse, with rampant party infighting and less than $10,000 in the bank. On 18 March 2011 the Victorian Supreme Court handed down a reserved judgment confirming Mr John Mulholland's valid removal as secretary.[55] This decision was subsequently reversed by the full bench of the Victorian Supreme Court however the Court also rejected Mulholland's claim that he was still the secretary of the DLP at the time the ruling was handed down.[56] A Senate petition in August 2011 from Mulholland requested that current DLP Senator John Madigan be removed from the Senate, with the petition lodged using a residual standing order of the chamber that has not been deployed successfully by anyone for more than a century. In his petition, Mulholland says Madigan put himself forward in the 2010 election as a DLP candidate "although the DLP federal executive did not authorise or recognise his candidacy or have any part in his nomination".[57]

In September 2014 Madigan resigned from the DLP and became an independent Senator, citing long-term internal party tensions and claiming he had been undermined by a member of his staff.[58] DLP federal president Paul Funnell strongly rejected Madigan's claims and demanded that he resign from the Senate so that his seat could be taken by a DLP member.[59]

2014 State ElectionEdit

The DLP was elected to the upper house region of Western Metropolitan, with candidate Dr Rachel Carling-Jenkins winning 2.6% of the vote, despite suffering a 0.5% swing.[60] On 26 June 2017, Carling-Jenkins resigned from the DLP to join Cory Bernardi's Australian Conservatives.[61][62][63]

Electoral resultsEdit

Parliamentary leadersEdit

No. Name Portrait Term of Office Seat
1 Bob Joshua   7 April 1955 10 December 1955 MP for Ballarat
2 George Cole   8 May 1956 23 June 1965 Senator for Tasmania
3 Vince Gair   23 June 1965 10 October 1973 Senator for Queensland
4 Frank McManus   10 October 1973 18 May 1974 Senator for Victoria
5 John Madigan   21 August 2011 4 September 2014 Senator for Victoria

Members of ParliamentEdit

Includes both Australian Labor Party (Anti-Communist) and Democratic Labor Party parliamentarians.

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b "Contact Us". Democratic Labour Party. Retrieved 26 August 2015.
  2. ^ Henriques-Gomes, Luke (10 May 2019). "Australian election 2019: how to avoid voting for a terrible micro party in the Senate". The Guardian. Retrieved 13 July 2019.
  3. ^ Mathews, Race. Of Labour and Liberty: Distributism in Victoria, 1891–1966. University of Notre Dame Press. ISBN 978-0-268-10343-9.
  4. ^ "A third-way that works…". dlp.org.au. Democratic Labour party. Retrieved 7 February 2021.
  5. ^ Henriques-Gomes, Luke (10 May 2019). "Australian election 2019: how to avoid voting for a terrible micro party in the Senate". The Guardian. Retrieved 14 March 2021.
  6. ^ "Scott Morrison: Australia's conservative pragmatist". BBC. 18 May 2019. Retrieved 7 March 2021.
  7. ^ a b Frank Mines. Gair, Canberra City, ACT, Arrow Press (1975); ISBN 0-909095-00-0
  8. ^ Lyle Allan (2013), "Change of Spelling: the DLP." in Recorder (Australian Society for the Study of Labour History, Melbourne Branch), No. 278, December, p.3
  9. ^ Robert Murray. The Split. Australian Labor in the fifties, Melbourne, Victoria, F.W. Cheshire (1970); ISBN 0-7015-0504-4
  10. ^ Paul Ormonde. The Movement, Melbourne, Victoria, Thomas Nelson (1972); ISBN 0-17-001968-3
  11. ^ Bruce Duncan. Crusade or Conspiracy? Catholics and the Anti-Communist Struggle in Australia (2001), University of New South Wales Press; ISBN 0-86840-731-3
  12. ^ Ross Fitzgerald. The Pope's Battalions. Santamaria, Catholicism and the Labor Split, (University of Queensland Press, 2003)
  13. ^ Niall Brennan. Dr Mannix, (Rigby, 1964)
  14. ^ B. A. Santamaria. The Price of Freedom. The Movement - After Ten Years, Melbourne, Victoria, Campion Press (1964).
  15. ^ Paul Ormonde. "The Movement - Politics by Remote Control" in Paul Ormonde (ed.) Santamaria. The Politics of Fear, Richmond, Victoria, Spectrum Publications (2000); ISBN 0-86786-294-7
  16. ^ "B.A. Santamaria - Interview Transcript tape 3". Australianbiography.gov.au. Retrieved 25 August 2010.
  17. ^ Gerard Henderson. Mr Santamaria and the Bishops, Sydney, NSW, Studies in the Christian Movement (1982); ISBN 0-949807-00-1
  18. ^ P.L. Reynolds. The Democratic Labor Party, Milton, Queensland. Jacaranda Publ. (1974); ISBN 0-7016-0703-3
  19. ^ Paul Strangio and Brian Costar (2005), "B. A. Santamaria: Religion as Politics", in Brian Costar, Peter Love and Paul Strangio (eds.), The Great Labor Schism. A Retrospective, Scribe Publications, Melbourne.
  20. ^ Bob Corcoran. "The Manifold Causes of the Labor Split", in Peter Love and Paul Strangio (eds.), Arguing the Cold War, Carlton North, Victoria, Red Rag Publications (2001); ISBN 0-9577352-6-X
  21. ^ "Victorian Govt. Defeated; Election On May 28". The Central Queensland Herald. Rockhampton, Qld.: National Library of Australia. 21 April 1955. p. 6. Retrieved 10 April 2012.
  22. ^ Ainsley Symons (2012), 'Democratic Labor Party members in the Victorian Parliament of 1955-1958,' in Recorder (Australian Society for the Study of Labour History, Melbourne Branch) No. 275, November, Pages 4-5.
  23. ^ "Frank Scully passes away, aged 95 years". Democratic Labour Party (Australia). 14 August 2015. Retrieved 18 August 2015.
  24. ^ Ainsley Symons (2012), 'Democratic Labor Party members in the Victorian Parliament of 1955–1958,' in Recorder (Australian Society for the Study of Labour History, Melbourne Branch) No. 275, November, Pages 4–5.
  25. ^ Lyle Allan (1988), "Irish Ethnicity and the Democratic Labor Party", Politics, Vol. 23 No. 2, Pages 28-34.
  26. ^ Joe Sampson. The Democratic Labour Party (DLP) and Bob Santamaria; a talk given at the Melbourne Unitarian Church on 8 July 2014. http://atheism.quantechsolutions.com.au/wp-content/uploads/2015/04/The-Democratic-Labour-Party-DLP-and-Bob-Santamaria2.pdf
  27. ^ Ernest Healy (1993), 'Ethnic ALP Branches - The Balkanisation of Labor,' in People and Place Vol.1, No.4, Page 38.
  28. ^ Gavan Duffy. Demons and Democrats. 1950s Labor at the Crossroads, Freedom Publishing (2002), p. 54.
  29. ^ a b Don Whitington. The Rulers. Fifteen Years of the Liberals, Lansdowne Press, Melbourne (1964), pp. 145-146.
  30. ^ "Cole, George Ronald (1908–1969) profile at Australian Dictionary of Biography Online". Adbonline.anu.edu.au. Retrieved 25 August 2010.
  31. ^ "Gair, Vincent (1901-1980) profile at the Australian Dictionary of Biography Online". Adbonline.anu.edu.au. Retrieved 25 August 2010.
  32. ^ Frank McManus. The Tumult and the Shouting, Adelaide, South Australia, Rigby (1977); ISBN 0-7270-0219-8
  33. ^ Jack Kane. Exploding the Myths. The Political Memoirs of Jack Kane, North Ryde, NSW, Angus and Robertson (1989); ISBN 0-207-16209-3
  34. ^ "Bob Santamaria - Interview Transcript tape 7". Australianbiography.gov.au. Retrieved 25 August 2010.
  35. ^ Antony Green, "Analysis of the 2007 elections in Victoria", abc.net.au; accessed 6 June 2018.
  36. ^ Michael Lyons. 'Defence, the Family and the Battler: The Democratic Labor Party and its Legacy,' Australian Journal of Political Science, September 2008, vol 43-3, pp. 425-442
  37. ^ "B.A. Santamaria - Interview Transcript tape 8". Australianbiography.gov.au. Retrieved 25 August 2010.
  38. ^ US embassy, 16 March 1973, Wikileaks.
  39. ^ a b "The Democratic Labor Party an overview". Australian Parliament House.
  40. ^ Fyfe, Melissa (20 June 2010). "State DLP on brink of collapse". The Age. Melbourne. Retrieved 8 August 2013.
  41. ^ Taylor, Josie (13 December 2006). "Democratic Labor Party makes a comeback in Victoria". ABC News. Australian Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved 14 December 2006.
  42. ^ Turning Hard Right: The Battle for Right to Life, Michael Bachelard, The Age 23 August 2009
  43. ^ "2010 election Victorian Senate preference flows: ABC Elections". Retrieved 7 September 2010.
  44. ^ "Victorian 2010 Senate results". Australian Electoral Commission. Archived from the original on 17 September 2010.
  45. ^ Colebatch, Tim (18 September 2010). "Labor has edge in tightest race ever". The Age. Melbourne. Retrieved 7 October 2010.
  46. ^ "John Madigan forges the heavy mettle of the DLP". The Australian. 1 June 2013.
  47. ^ Gullifer, Brendan (26 August 2011). "Senator Madigan calls to bring something better to the people". The Courier. Retrieved 8 August 2013.
  48. ^ Maiden Senate speech (video + transcript) 25 August 2011: Australian Parliament website Archived 15 October 2011 at the Wayback Machine
  49. ^ "About". Australian Manufacturing and Farming Program. Retrieved 8 August 2013.
  50. ^ a b Fyfe, Melissa (12 September 2010). "Red-leather day for the DLP". Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 16 September 2010.
  51. ^ a b c Preiss, Benjamin (15 September 2010). "DLP stakes its position on issues". The Courier. Retrieved 16 September 2010.
  52. ^ Ex-blacksmith may be needed to hammer out Senate deals, Gerard Henderson, Sydney Morning Herald, 16 August 2011|accessdate=8 August 2013
  53. ^ "Questions and Answers on West Papua". The Papua Daily. Archived from the original on 8 August 2013. Retrieved 8 August 2013.
  54. ^ "From the sublime to the shamefully ridiculous – West Papua, the Australian Senate and Vikki Riley". Crikey. 16 September 2012. Retrieved 8 August 2013.
  55. ^ "Mulholland v Victorian Electoral Commission & Anor 2011". Victorian Supreme Court. Austlii.edu.au. 18 March 2011. Retrieved 8 August 2013.
  56. ^ "Mulholland v Victorian Electoral Commission & Anor [2012] VSCA 104 (14 June 2012)". 14 June 2012. Retrieved 9 September 2013.
  57. ^ Murphy, Katharine (18 August 2011). "It's my party: expelled DLP member". The Age. Melbourne. Retrieved 8 August 2013.
  58. ^ Griffiths, Emma (4 September 2014). "Senator Madigan cuts ties with Democratic Labour Party, will serve out term as independent". ABC News. Australian Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved 4 September 2014.
  59. ^ Bourke, Latika (4 September 2014). "Give the seat back: Furious DLP officials slam John Madigan for quitting party". The Age. Fairfax Media. Archived from the original on 17 October 2015. Retrieved 4 September 2014.
  60. ^ https://www.vec.vic.gov.au/Results/State2014/WesternMetropolitanRegion.html
  61. ^ "Cory Bernardi strikes again, luring another MP to his Australian Conservatives". Smh.com.au. 27 June 2017. Retrieved 28 June 2017.
  62. ^ "Cory Bernardi's Australian Conservatives secures Victorian DLP MP Rachel Carling-Jenkins". Abc.net.au. 27 June 2017. Retrieved 28 June 2017.
  63. ^ "Victorian MP Rachel Carling-Jenkins set to defect to Australian Conservatives party". News.com.au. 27 June 2017. Retrieved 28 June 2017.

Further readingEdit

  • Lyle Allan (1988), "Irish Ethnicity and the Democratic Labor Party," Politics, Vol. 23 No.2, Pages 28–34
  • Niall Brennan (1964), Dr Mannix, Adelaide, South Australia, Rigby.
  • Ken Buckley, Barbara Dale and Wayne Reynolds. Doc Evatt, Melbourne, Victoria, Longman Cheshire (1994); ISBN 0-582-87498-X
  • Arthur Calwell. Be Just and Fear Not, Hawthorn, Victoria, Lloyd O'Neil (1972); ISBN 0-85550-352-1
  • Bob Corcoran (2001), "The Manifold Causes of the Labor Split", in Peter Love and Paul Strangio (eds.), Arguing the Cold War, Carlton North, Victoria, Red Rag Publications. ISBN 0-9577352-6-X
  • Brian Costar, Peter Love and Paul Strangio (eds.) The Great Labor Schism. A Retrospective, Melbourne, Victoria, Scribe Publications, 2005; ISBN 1-920769-42-0
  • Peter Crockett. Evatt. A Life, South Melbourne, Victoria, Oxford University Press (1993); ISBN 0-19-553558-8
  • Allan Dalziel. Evatt. The Enigma, Melbourne, Victoria, Lansdowne Press (1967).
  • Gavan Duffy. Demons and Democrats. 1950s Labor at the Crossroads, North Melbourne, Victoria, Freedom Publishing (2002); ISBN 0-9578682-2-7
  • Gil Duthie. I had 50,000 bosses. Memoirs of a Labor backbencher 1946-1975, Sydney, NSW, Angus and Robertson (1984); ISBN 0-207-14916-X
  • John Faulkner and Stuart Macintyre (eds.) True Believers. The Story of the Federal Parliamentary Labor Party, Crows Nest, NSW, Allen and Unwin (2001); ISBN 1-86508-527-8
  • Ross Fitzgerald, Adam James Carr and William J. Dealy. The Pope's Battalions. Santamaria, Catholicism and the Labor Split, St Lucia, Queensland, University of Queensland Press (2003); ISBN 0-7022-3389-7
  • Ross Fitzgerald and Stephen Holt. Alan "The Red Fox" Reid. Pressman Par Excellence, Sydney, NSW, University of New South Wales Press; ISBN 978-1-74223-132-7
  • James Franklin, "Catholic Thought and Catholic Action: Dr Paddy Ryan Msc.," Journal of the Australian Catholic Historical Society (1996) 17:44-55 online.
  • Colm Kiernan. Calwell. A Personal and Political Biography, West Melbourne, Thomas Nelson (1978); ISBN 0-17-005185-4
  • Michael Lyons (2008), "Defence, the Family and the Battler: The Democratic Labor Party and its Legacy," Australian Journal of Political Science, September, 43–3, Pages 425–442.
  • Frank McManus (1977), The Tumult and the Shouting, Adelaide, South Australia, Rigby. ISBN 0-7270-0219-8
  • Patrick Morgan (ed.) B. A. Santamaria. Your Most Obedient Servant. Selected Letters: 1918 - 1996, Carlton, Victoria, Miegunyah Press (2007); ISBN 0-522-85274-2
  • Patrick Morgan (ed.) Running the Show. Selected Documents: 1939-1996, Carlton, Victoria, Miegunyah Press (2008); ISBN 978-0-522-85497-8
  • Robert Murray (1970), The Split. Australian Labor in the fifties, Melbourne, Victoria, F.W. Cheshire. ISBN 0-7015-0504-4
  • Paul Ormonde (1972), The Movement, Melbourne, Victoria, Thomas Nelson. ISBN 0-17-001968-3
  • Paul Ormonde (2000), "The Movement - Politics by Remote Control," in Paul Ormonde (ed.) Santamaria. The Politics of Fear, Richmond, Victoria, Spectrum Publications. ISBN 0-86786-294-7
  • P.L Reynolds (1974), The Democratic Labor Party, Milton, Queensland, Jacaranda. ISBN 0-7016-0703-3
  • B. A. Santamaria. Against the Tide, Melbourne, Victoria, Oxford University Press (1981); ISBN 0-19-554346-7
  • Kylie Tennant. Evatt. Politics and Justice, Cremorne, NSW, Angus and Robertson (1970); ISBN 0-207-12533-3
  • Tom Truman. Catholic Action and Politics, London, England, The Merlin Press (1960).
  • Kate White. John Cain and Victorian Labor 1917-1957, Sydney, NSW, Hale and Iremonger (1982); ISBN 0-86806-026-7

External linksEdit