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Decane is an alkane hydrocarbon with the chemical formula C10H22. Although 75 structural isomers are possible for decane, the term usually refers to the normal-decane ("n-decane"), with the formula CH3(CH2)8CH3. All isomers, however, exhibit similar properties and little attention is paid to the composition.[4] These isomers are flammable liquids. Decane is a component of gasoline (petrol) and kerosene.[5] Like other alkanes, it is a nonpolar solvent, does not dissolve in water, and is readily combustible. Although it is a component of fuels, it is of little importance as a chemical feedstock, unlike a handful of other alkanes.[6]

Decane
Skeletal formula of decane
Skeletal formula of decane with all implicit carbons shown, and all explicit hydrogens added
Ball-and-stick model of the decane molecule
Names
IUPAC name
Decane[1]
Identifiers
3D model (JSmol)
1696981
ChEBI
ChEMBL
ChemSpider
DrugBank
ECHA InfoCard 100.004.262
EC Number 204-686-4
MeSH decane
RTECS number HD6550000
UN number 2247
Properties
C10H22
Molar mass 142.286 g·mol−1
Appearance Colorless liquid
Odor Gasoline-like
Density 0.730 g mL−1
Melting point −30.5 to −29.2 °C; −22.8 to −20.6 °F; 242.7 to 243.9 K
Boiling point 173.8 to 174.4 °C; 344.7 to 345.8 °F; 446.9 to 447.5 K
log P 5.802
Vapor pressure 195 Pa[2]
2.1 nmol Pa−1 kg−1
-119.74·10−6 cm3/mol
1.411–1.412
Viscosity
  • 0.850 mPa·s (25 °C)[3]
  • 0.920 mPa·s (20 °C)
Thermochemistry
315.46 J K−1 mol−1
425.89 J K−1 mol−1
−302.1–−299.9 kJ mol−1
−6779.21–−6777.45 kJ mol−1
Hazards
Safety data sheet hazard.com
GHS pictograms GHS02: Flammable GHS08: Health hazard
GHS signal word DANGER
H226, H304
P301+310, P331
NFPA 704
Flammability code 2: Must be moderately heated or exposed to relatively high ambient temperature before ignition can occur. Flash point between 38 and 93 °C (100 and 200 °F). E.g. diesel fuelHealth code 1: Exposure would cause irritation but only minor residual injury. E.g. turpentineReactivity code 0: Normally stable, even under fire exposure conditions, and is not reactive with water. E.g. liquid nitrogenSpecial hazards (white): no codeNFPA 704 four-colored diamond
2
1
0
Flash point 46.0 °C (114.8 °F; 319.1 K)
210.0 °C (410.0 °F; 483.1 K)
Explosive limits 0.8–2.6%
Lethal dose or concentration (LD, LC):
  • >2 g kg−1 (dermal, rabbit)
  • >5 g kg−1 (oral, rat)
Related compounds
Related alkanes
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
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Infobox references

Contents

ReactionsEdit

Decane undergoes combustion, just like other alkanes. In the presence of sufficient oxygen, it burns to form water and carbon dioxide.

2 C10H22 + 31 O2 → 20 CO2 + 22 H2O

With insufficient oxygen, carbon monoxide is also formed.

OtherEdit

It has a surface tension of 0.0238 N·m−1.[7]

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "decane - Compound Summary". PubChem Compound. USA: National Center for Biotechnology Information. 16 September 2004. Identification and Related Records. Retrieved 5 January 2012.
  2. ^ Yaws, Carl L. (1999). Chemical Properties Handbook. New York: McGraw-Hill. pp. 159–179. ISBN 0-07-073401-1.
  3. ^ Dymond, J. H.; Oye, H. A. (1994). "Viscosity of Selected Liquid n‐Alkanes". Journal of Physical and Chemical Reference Data. 23 (1): 41–53. doi:10.1063/1.555943. ISSN 0047-2689.
  4. ^ The 75 Isomers of Decane
  5. ^ "Petroleum - Chemistry Encyclopedia - reaction, water, uses, elements, examples, gas, number, name". www.chemistryexplained.com. Retrieved 2016-01-28.
  6. ^ Karl Griesbaum, Arno Behr, Dieter Biedenkapp, Heinz-Werner Voges, Dorothea Garbe, Christian Paetz, Gerd Collin, Dieter Mayer, Hartmut Höke "Hydrocarbons" in Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry 2002 Wiley-VCH, Weinheim. doi:10.1002/14356007.a13_227
  7. ^ Website of Krüss Archived 2013-12-01 at the Wayback Machine (8.10.2009)

External linksEdit

  Media related to Decane at Wikimedia Commons