The De Ceremoniis (fully De cerimoniis aulae Byzantinae) is the conventional Latin name for a Greek book of ceremonial protocol at the court of the Byzantine emperors in Constantinople. Its Greek title is often cited as Ἔκθεσις τῆς βασιλείου τάξεως ("Explanation of the Order of the Palace"), taken from the work's preface, or Περὶ τῆς Βασιλείου Τάξεως ("On the Order of the Palace"). In non-specialist English sources, it tends to be called the Book of Ceremonies of Constantine VII Porphyrogennetos (variably spelt), a formula used by writers including David Talbot Rice and the modern English translation.
History and sources edit
It was written or at least commissioned by Emperor Constantine VII (reigned 913-959), probably around 956-959. The compilation of Rep. I 17 (Leipzig, Universitätsbibliothek) was partially revised later under Nikephoros II (963-969), perhaps under the supervision of Basil Lekapenos, the imperial parakoimomenos, and it also contains earlier descriptions of the 6th century.
In its incomplete form chapters 1-37 of book I describe processions and ceremonies on religious festivals (many lesser ones, but especially great feasts like the Elevation of the Cross, Christmas, Epiphany, Palm Sunday, Good Friday, Easter and Ascension Day and saint's days like St Demetrius, St Basil etc. often extended over many days), while chapters 38-83 describe secular ceremonies or rites of passage like coronations (38-40), weddings (39,41), births (42), funerals (60), or the celebration of war triumphs during feasts at the Hippodrome like Lupercalia (73).
These protocols gave rules for imperial progresses to and from certain churches at Constantinople and the imperial palace, with fixed stations and rules for ritual actions and acclamations from specified participants (the text of acclamations and processional troparia or kontakia, but also heirmoi and stichera are mentioned), among them also ministers, senate members, leaders of the "Blues" and the "Greens" during the hippodrome's horse races who had an important role during court ceremonies. The following chapters (84-95) are taken from a 6th-century manual by Peter the Patrician. They rather describe administrative ceremonies like the appointment of certain functionaries (ch. 84,85), investitures of certain offices (86), the reception of ambassadors and the proclamation of the Western Emperor (87,88), the reception of Persian ambassadors (89,90), Anagorevseis of certain Emperors (91-96), the appointment of the senate's proedros (97). The "palace order" prescribes the conveyances required for movement (i.e. on foot, mounted, by boat), as well as the participants’ costumes and acclamations, some of which were debased Latin, which had not been an administrative language for more than three centuries.
The second book follows a very similar composition: (1) religious feasts and the description of palace buildings, (2) secular ceremonies and imperial ordonations, (3) imperial receptions and war festivities at the hippodrome, and later customs instituted by Constantine and his son Romanos.
See also edit
- "De Ceremoniis" in The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium, Oxford University Press, New York & Oxford, 1991, p. 595. ISBN 0195046528. Featherstone, Jeffrey Micael (2002). "Preliminary Remarks on the Leipzig Manuscript of De Cerimoniis". Byzantinische Zeitschrift. 95 (2): 457–479. doi:10.1515/BYZS.2002.457. S2CID 191473649. Featherstone, Michael; Jana Grusková; Otto Kresten (2006). "Studien zu den Palimpsestfragmenten des sogenannten "Zeremonienbuches" I. Prolegomena". Byzantinische Zeitschrift. 98 (2): 423–430. doi:10.1515/BYZS.2005.423. S2CID 192206992.
- For a discussion of the ceremonial book's composition, but also on details of certain ceremonies, see: Bury, John Bagnell (1907). "The Ceremonial Book of Constantine Porphyrogennetos". The English Historical Review. 22: 209–227, 426–448. doi:10.1093/ehr/xxii.lxxxvi.209.
- See also the reconstruction of "Constantinople about 1200". Byzantium 1200. 2009. a three-dimensional model of the quarter, and the presentation of a reconstruction by Jan Kostenec.
- The hippodrome was as important for court ceremonies as the Hagia Sophia for imperial religious ceremonies and rites of passage. It was not only used during horse races, but also for receptions and its banquets and the yearly celebration of Constantinople's inauguration on 11 May. The "Golden Hippodrome" was an own ceremony to inaugurate a new season and to fix the calendar of the ceremonial located in the hippodrome. Occasionally also votive horse races were given, like on 22 July for the feast of Saint Elias. Woodrow, Zoe Antonia (2001). "Imperial Ideology in Middle Byzantine Court Culture: The Evidence of Constantine Porphyrogenitus's 'De ceremoniis'". Durham University.
- Byzantine Civilisation, Steven Runciman, Hodder & Stoughton Educational (1933) ISBN 978-0713153163 (page 232)
- Featherstone, Jeffrey Michael (2013). "Der Grosse Palast von Konstantinopel: Tradition oder Erfindung?". Byzantinische Zeitschrift. 106: 19–38. doi:10.1515/bz-2013-0004. S2CID 190179559.
- Featherstone, Jeffrey Michael (2008). "Δι' Ἔνδειξιν : Display in Court Ceremonial (De Cerimoniis II,15)". In Anthony Cutler; Arietta Papaconstantinou (eds.). The Material and the Ideal: Essays in Mediaeval Art and Archaeology in Honour of Jean-Michel Spieser. Leiden: Brill. pp. 75–112. ISBN 9789004162860.
- "Leipzig, Universitätsbibliothek, Rep. I 17, ff.21v-265v". Book of ceremonies Κωνσταντίνου τοῦ φιλοχρίστου καὶ ἐν αὐτῶν αἰωνίων βασιλεῖ βασιλέως ὑιοῦ Λέοντος τοῦ σοφωτάτου καὶ ἀειμνήστου βασιλεῦ συντάγμα τι καὶ βασιλείου σπουδῆς ὄντως ἄξιον ποίημα (late 10th century).
Edition and Translation edit
- Leichius, Ioannes Henricus; Reiskius, Ioannes Iacobus, eds. (1751). Constantini Porphyrogenneti Imperatoris Constantinopolitani libri duo De Ceremoniis Aulae Byzantinae. Vol. 1. Lipsiae: Ioannis Friderici Gleditschii.
- Leichius, Ioannes Henricus; Reiskius, Ioannes Iacobus, eds. (1754). Constantini Porphyrogenneti Imperatoris Constantinopolitani libri duo De Ceremoniis Aulae Byzantinae. Vol. 2. Lipsiae: Ioannis Friderici Gleditschii.
- Reiske, Johann Jakob; Leich, Johannes Heinrich, eds. (1829). Constantini Porphyrogeniti Imperatoris De Ceremoniis Aulae Byzantinae libri duo graece et latini e recensione Io. Iac. Reiskii cum eiusdem commentariis integris. Corpus Scriptorum Historiae Byzantinae. Vol. 1. Bonn: Weber.
- Reiske, Johann Jakob; Leich, Johannes Heinrich, eds. (1830). Constantini Porphyrogeniti Imperatoris De Ceremoniis Aulae Byzantinae libri duo graece et latini e recensione Io. Iac. Reiskii cum eiusdem commentariis integris. Corpus Scriptorum Historiae Byzantinae. Vol. 2. Bonn: Weber.
- Konstantinos Porphyrogennetos: The book of ceremonies in 2 volumes. Byzantina Australiensia. Translated by Ann Moffatt (Reiske ed.). Canberra: Australian Association for Byzantine Studies. 2012. ISBN 978-1876503420.