David Starr Jordan

David Starr Jordan (January 19, 1851 – September 19, 1931) was the founding president of Stanford University, serving from 1891 to 1913. He was an ichthyologist during his research tenure and then served as president of Indiana University.

David Starr Jordan
Portrait of David Starr Jordan.jpg
1st Chancellor of Stanford University
In office
1913 (1913)–1916 (1916)
Preceded byOffice established
Succeeded byRay Lyman Wilbur
1st President of Stanford University
In office
1891 (1891)–1913 (1913)
Preceded byOffice established
Succeeded byJohn C. Branner
7th President of Indiana University
In office
1884 (1884)–1891 (1891)
Preceded byLemuel Moss
Succeeded byJohn Merle Coulter
Personal details
Born(1851-01-19)January 19, 1851
Wyoming County, New York
DiedSeptember 19, 1931(1931-09-19) (aged 80)
Stanford, California
Spouse(s)
Susan Bowen Jordan
(m. 1875; died 1885)

Jessie Knight Jordan
(m. 1887⁠–⁠1931)
ChildrenKnight Starr Jordan, Eric Knight Jordan, Barbara Jordan, Edith Jordan Gardner
Alma mater
ProfessionIchthyologist, University President
Scientific career
FieldsIchthyology
Institutions
Academic advisorsAndrew Dickson White
Doctoral studentsCharles Henry Gilbert
Other notable students
Author abbrev. (zoology)Jordan

Starr was also a strong supporter of eugenics, and his published views expressed a fear of "race-degeneration" and asserted that cattle and human beings are "governed by the same laws of selection." He was an antimilitarist since he believed that war killed off the best members of the gene pool, and he initially opposed American involvement in World War I.[1][2][3]

Early life and careerEdit

Jordan was born in Gainesville, New York, and grew up on a farm in upstate New York. His parents made the unorthodox decision to educate him at a local girls' high school.[4] His middle name, Starr, does not appear in early census records, and was apparently self-selected; he had begun using it by the time that he was enrolled at Cornell. He said that it was in honor of his mother’s devotion to the minister Thomas Starr King.

He was inspired by Louis Agassiz to pursue his studies in ichthyology. He was part of the pioneer class of undergraduates at Cornell University and graduated in 1872 with a master's degree in botany.

He wrote in his autobiography The Days of a Man, "During the three years which followed [my entrance as a "belated" freshman in March 1869], I completed all the requirements for a degree of Bachelor of Science, besides about two year of advanced work in Botany. Taking this last into consideration, the faculty conferred on me at graduation in June 1872, the advanced degree of Master of Science instead of the conventional Bachelor's Degree... it was afterward voted not to grant any second degree within a year after the Bachelor had been received. I was placed, quite innocently, in the position of being the only graduate of Cornell to merge two degrees into one."

His master's thesis was on the topic "The Wild Flowers of Wyoming County".

Jordan initially taught natural history courses at several small Midwestern colleges and secondary schools.

Jordan obtained a medical degree, M.D., from Indiana Medical College in 1875.[5]

He wrote in his autobiography that while teaching at Indianapolis High School, "I was also able to spend some time in the Medical College, from which, in the spring of 1875, I received the (scarcely earned) degree of Doctor of Medicine, though it had not at all been my intention to enter that profession." Jordan taught comparative anatomy at the college the following year (1876). The Indiana Medical College in Indianapolis had opened in 1869 and closed its doors in 1878.[6]

He was then accepted into the natural history faculty of Indiana University Bloomington as a professor of zoology in 1879. His teaching included his version of eugenics, which "sought to prevent the decay of the Anglo-Saxon/Nordic race by limiting racial mixing and by preventing the reproduction of those he deemed unfit."[7]

Personal lifeEdit

 
Portrait of Susan Bowen Jordan in 1879

Jordan married Susan Bowen (1845-1885), a biologist and a graduate of Mount Holyoke College (whom he had met at Louis Agassiz’s Pekinese island Summer School of Science), in her hometown of Peru, Massachusetts on March 10, 1875. She died at age 39, after 10 years of marriage, following a brief illness. Bowen was six years Jordan’s senior.

They had three children: the educator Edith Monica (1877–1965), Harold Bowen (1882–1959), and Thora (1884–1886).[8]

Jordan later married Jessie Knight (1866–1952) in 1887. At the time of their marriage, two years after his first wife’s death, Knight was 21 years old and Jordan was 36. They met while he was serving as president of Indiana University. He and his second wife had three additional children: Knight Starr (1888–1947), Barbara (1891–1900), and Eric Knight (1903–1926).[5][4][9]

Indiana University presidencyEdit

In 1885, he was named president of Indiana University and became the nation's youngest university president at only 34 and the first Indiana University president who was not an ordained minister.[10]

He improved the university's finances and public image, doubled its enrollment, and instituted an elective system; like Cornell's, it was an early application of the modern liberal arts curriculum.[4]

Stanford presidencyEdit

In March 1891, he was approached by Leland and Jane Stanford, who offered him the presidency of Leland Stanford Junior University, which was about to open in California. Andrew White, the president of Cornell, had been offered the position but instead recommended Jordan to the Stanfords based on an educational philosophy fit with the Stanfords' vision of a nonsectarian co-educational school with a liberal arts curriculum. Jordan quickly accepted the offer,[4] arrived at Stanford in June 1891, and immediately set about recruiting faculty for the university's planned September opening. Pressed for time, he drew heavily on his own acquaintances; most of the 15 founding professors came either from Cornell or Indiana University. That first year at Stanford, Jordan was instrumental in establishing the university's Hopkins Marine Station. He served Stanford as president until 1913 and then chancellor until his retirement in 1916. The university decided not to renew his three-year-term as chancellor in 1916. As the years went on, Jordan became increasingly alienated from the university.[10]

While he was chancellor, he was elected president of the National Education Association.[11] Jordan was a member in the Bohemian Club and the University Club in San Francisco.[12] Jordan served as a director of the Sierra Club from 1892 to 1903.[13]

EugenicsEdit

In 1899, Jordan delivered an essay at Stanford on behalf of racial segregation and racial purity.[14] In the essay, Jordan claimed that "For a race of men or a herd of cattle are governed by the same laws of selection." Jordan expressed great fears and phobias for "race degeneration" that would result unless great endeavors were put forward to maintain "racial unity."

Eugenics-based argument against warEdit

One of Jordan's main theses in the essay was that his goals for an ideal society are better engendered by peace than war. His argument against warfare contended that it is detrimental because it removes the strongest men from the gene pool.[15][16][17] Jordan asserted, "Future war is impossible because the nations cannot afford it."[18] As one commentator put it, "Though he found meager evidence to support his preconceptions, he still confidently asserted that 'always and everywhere, war means the reversal of natural selection.'"[3](p79)

Jordan was president of the World Peace Foundation from 1910 to 1914 and president of the World Peace Conference in 1915 and initially opposed American entry into World War I[10] although he changed his position in 1917 after he became convinced that a German victory would threaten democracy.[3]

Multiple publications of essayEdit

Soon after it was first delivered, the essay was published by the American Unitarian Association (copyright 1902) under the main title of "The Blood of the Nation" and a subtitle of "A Study of the Decay of Races Through the Survival of the Unfit." Multiple editions of that version followed over the next few years.[19]

An expanded version of the essay was delivered in Philadelphia at the 200th anniversary of Benjamin Franklin's birth in 1906 and printed by the American Philosophical Society. The following year, an expanded version of the original essay with an embossed cover was published by Beacon Press in Boston under the new main title "The Human Harvest" and the same subtitle.[20] Thile new version was dedicated to Jordan's older brother Rufus, who had volunteered to fight in the American Civil War and, according to Jordan, was part of the "'Human Harvest' of 1862." However, Rufus was killed not as "cannon fodder" in fighting but by what would seem to be the "natural selection" of a disease (typhus) he was "unfit" to survive.[21]

In 1910, the original and slimmer version of the essay was again published by the American Unitarian Association in a "present less expensive form to insure the widest possible distribution."[22]

In 1915, Jordan published an "extended treatise on the same subject" titled War and Breed and again through the Beacon Press in Boston.[23] Here Jordan defines and begins to employ the relatively recent term "eugenics" and its opposite "dysgenics."[24]

Influential roleEdit

In 1928 Jordan served on the initial board of trustees of the Human Betterment Foundation, a eugenics organization that advocated compulsory sterilization legislation in the United States.[25][26] He then chaired the first Committee on Eugenics of the American Breeder's Association from which the California program of forced deportation and sterilization emerged.[27] Jordan then went on to help found the Human Betterment Foundation as a trustee. The foundation published "Sterilization for Human Betterment."

Role in apparent coverup of murder of Jane StanfordEdit

In 1905, Jordan launched an apparent coverup of the murder by poisoning of Jane Stanford. While vacationing in Oahu, Stanford had suddenly died of strychnine poisoning according to the local coroner’s jury. Jordan then sailed to Hawaii, hired a physician to investigate the case, and declared she had in fact died of heart failure, a condition whose symptoms bear no relationship to those that were actually observed.[28][29] His motive for doing this has been a subject of speculation. One possibility is that he was simply acting to protect the reputation of the university[28][30] since its finances were precarious, and a scandal might have damaged fundraising. He had written the president of Stanford's board of trustees, offered several alternate explanations for Mrs. Stanford's death, and suggested to select whichever would be most suitable.[28] Since Mrs. Stanford had a difficult relationship with him and reportedly planned to remove him from his position at the university, he might have also had a personal motive to eliminate suspicions that might have swirled around an unsolved crime.[31] Jordan's version of Mrs. Stanford's demise[32] was largely accepted until the appearance of several publications in 2003 that emphasized the evidence that she was murdered.[28][30][31][33]

Final years and legacyEdit

In retirement, Jordan remained active, writing on ichthyology, world relations, peace, and his autobiography.[10]

Lifetime honors and awardsEdit

  • 1877 Honorary Ph.D. awarded by Butler University[34]
  • 1886 Honorary LL.D. awarded by Cornell University[35]
  • 1902 Honorary LL.D. awarded by Johns Hopkins University[36]
  • 1909 Honorary LL.D. awarded by Indiana University[37]

SkepticismEdit

Although a proponent of eugenics, Jordan was skeptical of certain other pseudoscientific claims. He coined the term "sciosophy" to describe the "systematized ignorance" of the pseudoscientist.[38][39] His later work, The Higher Foolishness, inspired the philosopher Martin Gardner to write his treatise on scientific skepticism, Fads and Fallacies in the Name of Science.[38] However, Gardner noted that "the book is infuriating because although Jordan mentions the titles of dozens of crank works, from which he quotes extensively, he seldom tells you the names of the authors."[38]

ChildrenEdit

His daughter Barbara (1891–1900) died in childhood.[40]

His son, Eric Knight Jordan (1903–1926), died at 22 in a traffic accident near Gilroy, California.[41][42] Eric had participated in a paleontological expedition to the Revillagigedo Islands and was considering an academic career.[43]

DeathEdit

On September 19, 1931, Jordan died at his home on the Stanford campus after he had suffered a series of strokes over two years.[44]

Monuments and memorialsEdit

 
The former Jordan Hall at Stanford University in May 2020 (now known as Building 420)

Geographical landmarksEdit

In July 2020, the president of the Sierra Club denounced Jordan and its other early leaders for being "vocal advocates for white supremacy and its pseudo-scientific arm, eugenics." The president also announced, "We will also spend the next year studying our history and determining which of our monuments need to be renamed or pulled down entirely." It is not yet clear on how their reassessment would affect the status of Mount Jordan, which the club had helped to name in 1926, or that of other geographic features that bear Jordan's name.[48]

Namesake TreeEdit

The David Starr Jordan "Namesake Tree" at the University of Hawai‘i at Mānoa Campus Arboretum, an Indian rubber tree (Ficus elastica) was given to Jordan at the outset of a trip to Japan, and planted by him on December 11, 1922,[49] now listed as an Exceptional Tree of Hawai‘i.[50]

Fishery research vessel (1966–2010)Edit

In 1966, the fisheries research ship David Starr Jordan was commissioned for service with the United States Fish and Wildlife Service's Bureau of Commercial Fisheries. The ship later served in the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration fleet as NOAAS David Starr Jordan (R 444)[51] before it was sold for scrap in 2010.[52]

Schools named or formerly named for David Starr JordanEdit

During the 20th century several schools were named after him or in his honor. However, most of them were renamed in the 21st century, as his eugenics activities became well known.

University campus buildingsEdit

Jordan was closely associated with Indiana University and Stanford University, and both schools named buildings and other campus features after him. However, as his reputation became more controversial in the 2000s, they acted to remove Jordan's name from their respective campuses.

Stanford honored its former president in 1917 by renaming its zoology building, built in 1899, to Jordan Hall.[63] Other campus features were named Jordan Quad, Jordan Modulars, and Jordan Way. In October 2020 the Stanford Board of Trustees voted unanimously, on the recommendation of an advisory committee, to remove Jordan's name from all four facilities. The former Jordan Hall was to be referred to as Building 420 until a permanent name could be selected sometime the following year. Stanford President Marc Tessier-Lavigne was charged to rename Jordan Quad and Jordan Modulars. The advisory committee recommended that the renaming of Jordan Way, a street on the medical campus, "may take place during the course of ongoing construction and planning."[64][65][66]

When Indiana University built a new building for its biology department in 1956, the building was named in honor of Jordan, its former president and biology faculty member.[67][68][69] In October 2020 the Indiana University Board of Trustees voted overwhelmingly to remove Jordan's name from the biology building as well as a parking garage and a "river" (actually a small creek) that runs through the center of the campus. Jordan's name was stripped from these places immediately after the trustee meeting had concluded, and they were given temporary, generic names to be used until permanent names could be selected the following year. Jordan Hall, the Jordan River and the Jordan Avenue Parking Garage became respectively the Biology Building, the Campus River, and the East Parking Garage.[70][71][72]

IU President Michael McRobbie requested the University Naming Committee to work with the city of Bloomington to find a name as a replacement for Jordan Avenue, a thoroughfare that is owned in part by IU and in part by the city.[73] As of October 2020, there have been calls in the Bloomington City Council for Jordan Avenue to be renamed, but no such action has been taken so far.[74] In April 2021, the Mayor of Bloomington created a seven-member task force to investigate possible replacement names for Jordan Avenue.[75]

As of March 2021, the Indiana University South Bend campus has a scholarship named in honor of Jordan that enables its students to study outside of the United States for a short period.[76]

Cornell's David Starr Jordan Prize (1986–2020)Edit

Starting in 1986, the David Starr Jordan Prize was funded as a joint endowment by Cornell University, Indiana University, and Stanford. Every three years it was awarded to a young scientist (under 40 years) who made contributions in one of Jordan’s interests of evolution, ecology, population or organismal biology.[77] The prize was last awarded in 2015 to a biology professor at the University of Texas at Austin.[78]

As Jordan's reputation became more controversial due to his support of eugenics, and particularly after the removal of Jordan's name from buildings on the campuses of Stanford and Indiana universities in 2020, there were calls to rename the prize. The prize was officially discontinued in 2020 and the endowment funds were returned to their respective universities.[79]

PapersEdit

Jordan's papers are housed at Stanford University[80] and at Swarthmore College[10]

WorksEdit

BooksEdit

  • Jordan, David Starr (1876). Manual of the Vertebrates of the Northern United States. Chicago: Jansen, McClurg, & Company. OCLC 1159743845 – via Google Books.
  • Jordan, David Starr; Brayton, Alembert Winthrop (1877). Contributions to North American Ichthyology. Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office. OCLC 1111892026 – via Google Books.
  • (1882). Synopsis of the Fishes of North America.
  • (1885). A Catalogue of the Fishes Known to Inhabit the Waters of North America.
  • (1887). Science Sketches.
  • (1888). The Value of Higher Education.
  • (1895). The Factors in Organic Evolution.
  • (1895). The Fishes of Puget Sound.
  • (1895). The Fishes of Sinaloa.
  • Jordan, David Starr (1895). The Story of the Innumerable Company. San Francisco: Whitaker & Ray Company. OCLC 1038493650 – via Project Gutenberg.
  • Jordan, David Starr (1896). The Care and Culture of Men: A Series of Addresses on the Higher Education. San Francisco: Whitaker & Ray-Wiggin Company. OCLC 1041603588 – via Google Books.
  • (1896–1900). The Fishes of North and Middle America [four vols.]
  • (1897). Matka and Kotik.
  • (1898). The Fur Seals and Fur-Seal Islands of the North Pacific Ocean.
  • Jordan, David Starr (1898). Footnotes to Evolution. D. Appleton. OCLC 7391851152 – via Google Books.
  • (1899). The Book of Knight and Barbara.
  • Jordan, David Starr (1907) [1899]. California and the Californians. San Francisco: A. M. Robertson. OCLC 213790638 – via Archive.org.
  • Jordan, David Starr (1898). Imperial democracy. Boston: Women's Education & Industrial Union. OCLC 1189741706 – via Google Books.
  • Jordan, David Starr (1899). The Question of the Philippines. Palo Alto: Graduate Club of Leland Stanford Junior University. OCLC 1190063035 – via Google Books.
  • (1899). The True Basis of Economics [with J.H. Stallard].
  • (1900). Animal Life: A First Book of Zoology [with Vernon L. Kellog].
  • Jordan, David Starr (1900). The Strength of Being Morally Clean. Boston: H.M. Caldwell Company. OCLC 697581156 – via Archive.org.
  • (1902). American Food and Game Fishes [with B. W. Evermann]
  • (1902). Animal Forms: A Text-Book of Zoology.
  • Jordan, David Starr (1902). The Blood of the Nation (1910, expanded ed.). Boston: American Unitarian Association. OCLC 867059830 – via Google Books.
  • Jordan, David Starr (1902). The Philosophy of Despair. OCLC 1126018479 – via Project Gutenberg.
  • (1903). Animal Studies [with Vernon L. Kellog and Harold Heath].
  • (1903). The Training of a Physician.
  • (1903). The Voice of the Scholar.
  • (1904). The Wandering Host.
  • (1905). The Aquatic Resources of the Hawaiian Islands.
  • (1905). A Guide to the Study of Fishes.
  • (1905). The Fish Fauna of the Tortugas Archipelago [with Dr. Joseph Cheesman Thompson, published for the US Bureau of Fisheries].
  • (1906). The Fishes of Samoa.
  • (1906). Life's Enthusiasms.
  • (1907). The Alps of King-Kern Divide.
  • (1907). The California Earthquake of 1906.
  • (1907). College and the Man.
  • (1907). Evolution and Animal Life [with Vernon L. Kellog].
  • (1907). Fishes.
  • (1907). Fishes of the Islands of Luzon and Panay.
  • Jordan, David Starr (1907). The Human Harvest: A Study of the Decay of Races Through the Survival of the Unfit. Boston: The Beacon Press. OCLC 15615394 – via Google Books. (An expansion of "The Blood of a Nation.")
  • (1908). Description of Three New Species of Carangoid Fishes from Formosa.
  • (1908). The Fate of Iciodorum.
  • (1908). Fish Stories: Alleged and Experienced.
  • (1908). The Higher Sacrifice.
  • (1908). The Scientific Aspects of Luther Burbank's Work [with Vernon L. Kellog].
  • (1909). A Catalog of the Fishes of Formosa.
  • (1909). The Religion of a Sensible American.
  • (1909). Fish stories alleged and experienced, with a little history natural and unnatural [with Charles Frederick Holder]
  • Jordan, David Starr (1910). The Call of the Nation: A Plea for Taking Politics Out of Politics. Boston: American Unitarian Association. OCLC 645108940 – via Archive.org.
  • (1910). Check-List of Species of Fishes Known from the Philippine Archipelago [with Robert Earl Richardson].
  • (1910). Leading American Men of Science.
  • (1910). The Woman and the University.
  • (1910). Work of the International Fisheries Commission of Great Britain and the United States.
  • Jordan, David Starr (1911). The Heredity of Richard Roe: A Discussion of the Principles of Eugenics. Boston: American Unitarian Association. OCLC 808257564 – via Google Books.
  • (1911). The Stability of Truth.
  • (1912). The Practical Education.
  • (1912). The Story of a Good Woman: Jane Lathrop Stanford.
  • (1912). Syllabus of Lectures on International Conciliation.
  • (1912). Unseen Empire.
  • (1913). America's Conquest of Europe.
  • (1913). A Catalog of the Fishes Known from the Waters of Korea.
  • (1913). Naval Waste.
  • (1913). War and Waste.
  • (1913). What Shall We Say?
  • (1914). Record of Fishes Obtained in Japan in 1911.
  • (1914). War's Aftermath [with Harvey Ernest Jordan].
  • Jordan, David Starr (1915). The Foundation Ideals of Stanford University. Stanford University. OCLC 21500886 – via Google Books.
  • Jordan, David Starr (1922) [1915]. War and the Breed: The Relation of War to the Downfall of Nations. Younkers-on-Hudson: World Book Company. OCLC 1019453204 – via Google Books. A further extended and updated version of earlier works The Blood of a Nation and The Human Harvest.
  • Jordan, David Starr (1916). Ways to Lasting Peace. Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill Company. OCLC 826648796 – via Archive.org.
  • Jordan, David Starr (1916). What of Mexico?. New York City: The Mexican-American League. OCLC 16433936 – via Archive.org.
  • (1916). World Peace and the College Man.
  • (1917). The Genera of Fishes.
  • (1918). Democracy and World Relations.
  • (1919). Fossil Fishes of Southern California.
  • (1919). Studies in Ichthyology [with Carl Leavitt Hubbs].
  • (1920). Fossil Fishes of Diatom Beds of Lompoc, California.
  • (1922). Days of a Man [autobiography in two volumes]
  • Jordan, David Starr; Jordan, Eric Knight (1922). A List of the Fishes of Hawaii: With notes and descriptions of new species. Pittsburgh: Memoirs of the Carnegie Museum. OCLC 964874266 – via Archive.org.
  • Jordan, David Starr (1927). The Higher Foolishness, with Hints as to the Care & Culture of Aristocracy. Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill Company. OCLC 2572248.
  • (1929). Your Family Tree.

Selected articlesEdit

MiscellanyEdit

EponymyEdit

Numerous genera and species bear the name Jordan.

Genera: Jordania Starks, 1895, Davidijordania Popov, 1931, and Jordanella Goode & Bean, 1879

Species:

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "David Starr Jordan '72" (PDF). Cornell Alumni News. I (6): 39, 43. May 10, 1899.
  2. ^ David Starr Jordan The Blood of the Nation: A Study of the Decay of Races through the Survival of the Unfit. (copyright 1902, reprinted 1910) p 12. The term "race" occurs more than 30 times in the short book. The term "eugenics" is not in there, but the basic concept is described.
  3. ^ a b c Abrahamson, James L (1976). "David Starr Jordan and American Antimilitarism". The Pacific Northwest Quarterly. 67 (2): 76–87. JSTOR 40489774.
  4. ^ a b c d Johnston, Theresa (January–February 2010). "Meet President Jordan". Stanford Magazine. Archived from the original on June 17, 2010. Retrieved April 24, 2011.
  5. ^ a b "Jordan, David Starr". The National cyclopaedia of American biography. 22. New York: James T. White & Company. 1932. pp. 68–70.
  6. ^ "Medical Schools of the United States". Journal of the American Medical Association. 51 (7): 103–104. 1908. doi:10.1001/jama.1908.02540070033004. PMC 5213511. PMID 29820858.
  7. ^ Johnsson, L. (February 19, 2016). "Guest Opinion: The inconvenient truth about David Starr Jordan". Palo Alto Online. Embarcadero Media. Retrieved March 20, 2017.
  8. ^ Jordan, David Starr (1922). The Days of a Man. One. World Book Company. p. 132 – via Internet Archive.
  9. ^ "David Starr Jordan". Geni.com (wiki). Retrieved June 21, 2012.
  10. ^ a b c d e "David Starr Jordan Collected Papers (CDG-A), Swarthmore College Peace Collection". Swarthmore College.
  11. ^ "David Starr Jordan". The Independent. July 13, 1914. Retrieved August 21, 2012.
  12. ^ Dulfer & Hoag (1925). Our Society Blue Book Archived 2009-05-25 at the Wayback Machine. San Francisco: Dulfer & Hoag, pp. 177–178.
  13. ^ "Roster of Sierra Club Directors" (PDF). Sierra Club. Retrieved February 2, 2010.
  14. ^ David Starr Jordan, The Human Harvest (Boston, 1907) p. 5
  15. ^ Jordan, D.S. (January 1906). "The Human Harvest". Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society. 45 (182): 54–69. JSTOR 983679.
  16. ^ Jordan, D.S. (October 1915). "War Selection in the Ancient World". The Scientific Monthly. 1 (1): 36–43. Bibcode:1915SciMo...1...36S. JSTOR 6241.
  17. ^ Jordan, D.S. (February 1924). "The Last Cost of War". Advocate of Peace Through Justice. 86 (2): 110–114. JSTOR 20660507.
  18. ^ Nye, Joseph (2005). Understanding International Conflicts: An Introduction to Theory and History. Longman. p. 6.
  19. ^ Jordan, David Starr (1910). The Blood of the Nation. Boston: American Unitarian Association. p. 2 – via Google Books.
  20. ^ Jordan (Boston, 1907)
  21. ^ David Starr Jorden, "The Days of Man" (Vol. 1) p. 11.
  22. ^ Jordan, Blood of the Nation (Boston, 1910) p. 2.
  23. ^ Days of Man p 619
  24. ^ War and Breed p 12
  25. ^ "Human Sterilization Today," Human Betterment Foundation, 1938.
  26. ^ Black, E. (November 9, 2003). "Eugenics and the Nazis -- the California connection". San Francisco Chronicle.
  27. ^ McPhate, M. (December 20, 2016). "California Today: Wrestling With a Legacy of Eugenics". The New York Times.
  28. ^ a b c d Romney, Lee (October 10, 2003). "The Alma Mater Mystery". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved December 19, 2012.
  29. ^ Morris, A. D. (2004). "Review of The Mysterious Death of Jane Stanford" (PDF). Hawaiian Journal of History. Hawaiian Historical Society. 38: 195–197. Retrieved December 21, 2012.
  30. ^ a b Cutler, Robert W. P. (August 1, 2003). The Mysterious Death of Jane Stanford. Stanford University Press. ISBN 978-0-8047-4793-6. OCLC 52159960. Retrieved December 19, 2012.
  31. ^ a b Carnochan, W. B. (Summer 2003). "The Case of Julius Goebel: Stanford, 1905". American Scholar. Phi Beta Kappa. 72 (3): 95–108. JSTOR 41221161.
  32. ^ Jordan (1922). The Days of a Man. Yonkers-on-Hudson, N.Y.: World Book Co., pp. 156-157.
  33. ^ Wolfe, Susan (September–October 2003). "Who Killed Jane Stanford?". Stanford Magazine. Stanford University. Retrieved December 19, 2012.
  34. ^ Butler College Alumni Directory 1856-1912. Butler University. 1912. p. 43.
  35. ^ Saulnier, Beth (May 15, 2008). "CAM Online Exclusive ? Faculty Reject Honorary Degrees". Cornell Alumni Magazine.
  36. ^ "Honorary Degrees Awarded". Johns Hopkins University. Archived from the original on February 21, 2018. Retrieved July 12, 2018.
  37. ^ "University Honors & Awards". Indiana University.
  38. ^ a b c Gardner, Martin. (1957). Preface. In Fads and Fallacies in the Name of Science. Dover Publications. ISBN 0-486-20394-8
  39. ^ Stableford, Brian M. (2006). Science Fact and Science Fiction: An Encyclopedia. Routledge. p. 410. ISBN 0-415-97460-7
  40. ^ Miller, Lulu (2020). Why fish don't exist : a story of loss, love, and the hidden order of life. Kate Samworth. New York, NY. ISBN 978-1-5011-6027-1. OCLC 1105945963.
  41. ^ Guérard, Albert (1926). "Eric Knight Jordan". Sigma Xi Quarterly. 14 (2): 55–56.
  42. ^ Guérard, Albert (1926). "Eric Knight Jordan, 1903–1926". Copeia. 152 (152): S1. Bibcode:1926Sci....63..327G. doi:10.1126/science.63.1630.327. JSTOR 1437277. PMID 17810424.
  43. ^ Hanna, G. Dallas (1926). "Expedition to the Revillagigedo Islands, Mexico, in 1925. General Report". Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences. Series 4. 15 (1): 1–113.
  44. ^ "Dr. David Starr Jordan Dies; Family With Educator As Passes Away: Fifth Attack Ends an Illness of Two Years". Healdsburg Tribune (269). September 19, 1931. p. 1 – via California Digital Newspaper Collection. David Starr Jordan, chancellor emeritus of Stanford university, died at 9:45 a.m. today. A stroke suffered yesterday, his fifth in two years, hastened the noted educator’s death. Mrs. Jordan, a son and a daughter, were at the bedside when death came.
  45. ^ John W. Van Cott (1990). Utah Place Names: A Comprehensive Guide to the Origins of Geographic Names : a Compilation. University of Utah Press. pp. 207–208. ISBN 978-0-87480-345-7.
  46. ^ "Mountain Peak Is Named for Jordan". Bakersfield Californian. February 8, 1926. p. 2. Alternate Link via NewspaperArchive.com.
  47. ^ Jordan, David Starr (April 16, 1926). "Mount Jordan". Science. 63 (1633): 402. doi:10.1126/science.63.1633.402. PMID 17817312.
  48. ^ Brune, Michael (July 22, 2020). "Pulling Down Our Monuments". Sierra Club.
  49. ^ Jackson, Frances; et al. (1975). Papers of the Ad Hoc Committee on Preservation of Campus Plantings (PDF). University of Hawai‘i at Mānoa (Report).
  50. ^ "UH Mānoa · Campus Plant Collections". University of Hawai‘i at Mānoa. Retrieved May 2, 2016.
  51. ^ "NOAA Ship DAVID STARR JORDAN". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Archived from the original on February 13, 2013. Retrieved January 17, 2006.
  52. ^ "NOAA Ship David Starr Jordan". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Archived from the original on October 16, 2014.
  53. ^ Kadvany, Elena (March 28, 2018). "School board votes to rename schools after Frank Greene, Ellen Fletcher: Divisive, years long debate ends with final decision Tuesday night". Palo Alto Weekly.
  54. ^ Kelly, Kevin (March 28, 2018). "Palo Alto: Middle schools to be named after Frank Greene Jr., Ellen Fletcher: Terman Middle School will be renamed in honor of Ellen Fletcher, Jordan Middle will be renamed after Frank Greene Jr., putting end to controversy". San Jose Mercury News.
  55. ^ Ashoke, Sohini & Lee, Amanda (March 31, 2017). "Board cuts eugenicist ties with vote to rename schools". Gunn Oracle.
  56. ^ Sahakyan, Marian (April 22, 2019). "Burbank school board votes to change name of David Starr Jordan Middle School". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved April 22, 2019.
  57. ^ Paredes, Lisa (March 5, 2021). "Jordan Renamed To Dolores Huerta Middle School". My Burbank.
  58. ^ "School Will Bear Name of David Starr Jordan". Indianapolis Star. January 2, 1934. p. 12. ProQuest 1890057301. David Starr Jordan is the name for the high school to be built soon at North Long Beach.
  59. ^ Guardabascio, Mike (August 6, 2020). "After renewed cry for change, LBUSD reconvenes committee to examine school names". Long Beach Post.
  60. ^ Rosenfeld, David (July 12, 2020). "Push On To Rename Schools, Including In Long Beach". Grunion.
  61. ^ Blume, Howard (October 8, 2020). "Watts' Jordan High cuts association with promoter of eugenics but keeps partial name". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved October 9, 2020.
  62. ^ Tat, Linh (October 9, 2020). "LAUSD removes eugenicist from name of L.A.'s Jordan High: Renaming of campus buildings a growing trend amid racial justice movement". Los Angeles Daily News.
  63. ^ Annual Report of the President of the University for the Twenty Sixth Academic Year ending July 31st, 1917. Stanford University. 1917 – via Google Books.
  64. ^ Peacock, Chris (October 7, 2020). "Stanford will rename campus spaces named for David Starr Jordan and relocate statue depicting Louis Agassiz: President Marc Tessier-Lavigne and the Board of Trustees approved a campus committee's recommendation both to remove Jordan's name from campus spaces and to take steps to make his multifaceted history better known. Stanford also will relocate a statue of Agassiz". Stanford News.
  65. ^ Espinosa, Michael; Zaidel, Benjamin (October 7, 2020). "Stanford to rename spaces honoring David Starr Jordan, founding president and noted eugenicist: Statue of Jordan's mentor Louis Agassiz also to be relocated".
  66. ^ Reports of the Advisory Committee on renaming Jordan Hall and removing the statue of Louis Agassiz (PDF). Stanford University (Report). September 14, 2020.
  67. ^ "To Dedicate New IU Biology Hall Friday". Palladium-Item. June 4, 1956. p. 1 – via Newspapers.com. The David Starr Jordan Hall of Biology, a $3,800,000 building to house natural science classrooms and laboratories, will be dedicated Friday afternoon on the Indiana University campus. The building is named for a 19th century Zoology professor who became president of the university.
  68. ^ Kimberling, Clark. "David Starr Jordan Landmarks on the campus of Indiana University, Bloomington". University of Evansville. Archived from the original on August 5, 2012.
  69. ^ "Jordan River". Indiana Alumni Magazine. Vol. 18. June 1956. p. 7.
  70. ^ Reschke, Michael (October 2, 2020). "IU board approves removing Jordan name from building, river, parking garage". The Herald-Times.
  71. ^ Berman, Eric (October 2, 2020). "IU Removes Name of Eugenics Advocate From Campus Buildings". WIBC (FM).
  72. ^ Report and Recommendations (PDF). The Committee to Review Namings in Honor of Indiana University's Seventh President David Starr Jordan (Report). September 1, 2020.
  73. ^ "President McRobbie to recommend removal of Jordan namings on IU Bloomington campus". IU News. September 24, 2020.
  74. ^ Askins, Dave (October 8, 2020). Taliaferro Avenue floated as new name for city street that cuts through IU campus, part of effort to remove Jordan namings. B Square Beacon.
  75. ^ Pebworth, Hugh (April 22, 2021). "City of Bloomington to rename Jordan Avenue, create task force with IU". Indiana Daily Student.
  76. ^ "International Study Abroad Scholarship Application" (PDF). Indiana University South Bend. January 17, 2019.
  77. ^ "The David Starr Jordan Prize". Archived from the original on March 4, 2016. Retrieved March 20, 2016.
  78. ^ "IU, Stanford and Cornell name Jordan Prize recipient". Indiana Daily Student. February 10, 2015.
  79. ^ "Front side of The David Starr Jordan Prize". Archives Photograph Collection. Indiana University Bloomington. Retrieved March 13, 2021.
  80. ^ "Guide to the David Starr Jordan Papers". Stanford University archives. Retrieved June 21, 2012.
  81. ^ Cherry, W B; Gorman, G W; Orrison, L H; Moss, C W; Steigerwalt, A G; Wilkinson, H W; Johnson, S E; McKinney, R M; Brenner, D J (February 1982). "Legionella jordanis: a new species of Legionella isolated from water and sewage". J Clin Microbiol. 15 (2): 290–297. doi:10.1128/JCM.15.2.290-297.1982. PMC 272079. PMID 7040449.

Further readingEdit

External linksEdit

Academic offices
Preceded by
Lemuel Moss
President of Indiana University
1884–1891
Succeeded by
John Merle Coulter
New office President of Stanford University
1891–1913
Succeeded by
John C. Branner
New office Chancellor of Stanford University
1913–1916
Vacant
Title next held by
Ray Lyman Wilbur