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Cytisus is a genus of about 50 species of flowering plants in the family Fabaceae, native to open sites (typically scrub and heathland) in Europe, western Asia and North Africa. It belongs to the subfamily Faboideae, and is one of several genera in the tribe Genisteae which are commonly called brooms. They are shrubs producing masses of brightly coloured, pea-like flowers, often highly fragrant.[2] Members of the segregate genera, Calicotome and Lembotropis are sometimes included in Cytisus.

Cytisus
Cytisus ardoini2.jpg
Cytisus ardoini
Scientific classification
Kingdom:
(unranked):
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(unranked):
Order:
Family:
Subfamily:
Tribe:
Genus:
Cytisus

Species

43–235; see text.

Synonyms
  • Chamaecytisus Link
  • Chronanthus K. Koch
  • Corothamnus (W. D. J. Koch) C. Presl
  • Cytisogenista Duhamel
  • Cytisus L.
  • Sarothamnus Wimm.
  • Spartocytisus Webb & Berthel.
  • Verzinum Raf.

Contents

SpeciesEdit

Cytisus comprises the following species:[3][4][5]

Species names with uncertain taxonomic statusEdit

The status of the following species is unresolved:[5]

  • Cytisus affinis C.Presl
  • Cytisus affinis Boiss.
  • Cytisus africanus Loisel.
  • Cytisus ambiguus Adamović
  • Cytisus anagyrifolius Pourr. ex Willk. & Lange
  • Cytisus anagyrius L'Hér.
  • Cytisus angulatus (L.) Boiss. ex Spach
  • Cytisus angustifolius Moench
  • Cytisus antillanus DC.
  • Cytisus apulus Ten. & Guss. ex Nyman
  • Cytisus arcuatus Vuk.
  • Cytisus arenarius Simonk.
  • Cytisus argyreius Rchb.
  • Cytisus arvensis Vell.
  • Cytisus aspalathoides Spreng.
  • Cytisus atleyanus K.Koch
  • Cytisus atropurpureus Benth.
  • Cytisus aurantiacus Regel
  • Cytisus banaticus Griseb. & Schenk
  • Cytisus barbarus Maire
  • Cytisus barbatus (Jahand. & Maire) Maire
  • Cytisus barcinonensis Sennen
  • Cytisus bartolottae Tod.
  • Cytisus bisflorens Host
  • Cytisus boissieri Briq.
  • Cytisus bosnaicus Beck
  • Cytisus bosniacus Beck
  • Cytisus brasiliensis Vell.
  • Cytisus bucovinensis Simonk.
  • Cytisus cajanus Sessé & Moc.
  • Cytisus candidus C.Presl
  • Cytisus canescens Loisel.
  • Cytisus canescens J.Presl & C.Presl
  • Cytisus cantabrieus Bubani
  • Cytisus capensis P.J.Bergius
  • Cytisus capensis Lam.
  • Cytisus carlieri Hort. ex Handl.
  • Cytisus carneus Hoffmanns.
  • Cytisus catalaunicus (Webb) Briq.
  • Cytisus cayan L. ex Mill.
  • Cytisus chamaecytisus Vuk.
  • Cytisus chrysobotrys Boiss.
  • Cytisus chrysotrichus Fisch.
  • Cytisus cincinnatus Ball
  • Cytisus cinereus Host
  • Cytisus cinereus Vuk.
  • Cytisus collinus Schur
  • Cytisus complicatus Raeusch.
  • Cytisus complicatus (L.) Brot.
  • Cytisus confertus Schur
  • Cytisus corniculatus Gueldenst. ex Ledeb.
  • Cytisus coronensis Schur
  • Cytisus czerniaevii V.I. Krecz.
  • Cytisus dalmaticus Vuk.
  • Cytisus decaphyllus Noronha
  • Cytisus divaricatus L'Hér.
  • Cytisus dorycnium Pourr. ex Willk. & Lange
  • Cytisus ferox Hoffmanns.
  • Cytisus filiformis Spreng.
  • Cytisus foliosus L'Hér.
  • Cytisus frivalszkyanus Briq.
  • Cytisus frutescens Vuk.
  • Cytisus ganipilus Velen. ex Nadji
  • Cytisus genistoides Regel
  • Cytisus georgievi Davidov
  • Cytisus graecus L.
  • Cytisus haensleri Ball
  • Cytisus haplophyllus Sennen
  • Cytisus haynaldi Simonk.
  • Cytisus haynaldi Briq.
  • Cytisus heterocanthus Vuk.
  • Cytisus heterophyllus Lapeyr.
  • Cytisus hirtellus Rchb. ex Nyman
  • Cytisus hirtus Burm.f.
  • Cytisus hispanicus Lam.
  • Cytisus horniflorus Borbás
  • Cytisus hosmariensis Ball
  • Cytisus humifusus Nyman
  • Cytisus humifusus Vest
  • Cytisus ifnianus Font Quer
  • Cytisus incanus Regel
  • Cytisus incarnatus K.Koch
  • Cytisus infestus Guss.
  • Cytisus insubricus Wettst. ex Briq.
  • Cytisus insularis S.Ortiz & Pulgar
  • Cytisus jacquinianus Wettst.
  • Cytisus junceus (L.) Vuk.
  • Cytisus kerneri Mugg.Kan & Knapp
  • Cytisus kerneri Blocki
  • Cytisus kewensis Bean
  • Cytisus kitaibelii Vis.
  • Cytisus kosmariensis Ball ex Koehne
  • Cytisus lamarckii Ten.
  • Cytisus lanceolatus Benth.
  • Cytisus lanuginosus Royle
  • Cytisus leiotrichus Borbás
  • Cytisus linkii Janka
  • Cytisus linneanus Wettst.
  • Cytisus lobelii Tausch
  • Cytisus longissimus Hoffmanns.
  • Cytisus lotoides Pourr.
  • Cytisus lotoides Willd.
  • Cytisus lupinus Gromov ex Trautv.
  • Cytisus macrospermus Besser ex DC.
  • Cytisus malyei Steud.
  • Cytisus marilauni Borbás
  • Cytisus medicaginifolius Pourr. ex Willk. & Lange
  • Cytisus medicaginoides Hort. ex Handl.
  • Cytisus microphyllus (DC.) Link
  • Cytisus microphyllus Boiss.
  • Cytisus milleri Steud.
  • Cytisus monopestulanus Briq.
  • Cytisus mutabilis Loscos
  • Cytisus neapolitanus Cohen-Stuart
  • Cytisus noeanus Rchb. ex Briq.
  • Cytisus obscurus Schur
  • Cytisus obvallatus Schur
  • Cytisus onustus Tausch
  • Cytisus ovatus Vuk.
  • Cytisus oxalidifolius C.A.Mey. ex Boiss.
  • Cytisus paniculatus Loisel.
  • Cytisus pannonicus Simonk.
  • Cytisus parviflorus Boiss.
  • Cytisus parviflorus Benth.
  • Cytisus parvifolius Lam.
  • Cytisus penduliflorus Stokes
  • Cytisus pendulus Salisb.
  • Cytisus pentaphyllus Salzm. ex Walp.
  • Cytisus peregrinus Hoffmanns.
  • Cytisus philippensis Lindl.
  • Cytisus philippi Lindl.
  • Cytisus philippinensis Lindl.
  • Cytisus pilosus Pall.
  • Cytisus pilosus Vuk.
  • Cytisus plumosus Spach ex Nyman
  • Cytisus polycephalus Tausch
  • Cytisus polymorphus Pourr. ex Willk. & Lange
  • Cytisus ponticus Willd.
  • Cytisus ponticus Griseb.
  • Cytisus preslii Nyman
  • Cytisus procerus Link
  • Cytisus propinquus Schur
  • Cytisus pseudo-nigricans Schur
  • Cytisus pseudo-rochelii Simonk.
  • Cytisus pseudo-umbellatus Font Quer
  • Cytisus pseudopygmaeus Davidov
  • Cytisus psoraloides L.
  • Cytisus pulchellus Vis.
  • Cytisus pullulans Kit.
  • Cytisus pungens Spreng.
  • Cytisus quinquefolius hort. ex Lavallée
  • Cytisus repens Wolfner
  • Cytisus rhodopeus J.Wagner
  • Cytisus rhodopnoa (Webb & Berthel.) Schouw
  • Cytisus rhodopus Wagn. ex Degen
  • Cytisus rigidus (Viv.) Cristof. & Troìa
  • Cytisus rudolphi Hort. ex Vilmorin's
  • Cytisus rufulus C.Presl
  • Cytisus scariosus Vuk.
  • Cytisus scepusiensis Kit.
  • Cytisus schimperianus Steud. ex Baker
  • Cytisus serotinus Kit. ex DC.
  • Cytisus sessilis Mill.
  • Cytisus shipkaensis Dippel
  • Cytisus +sordidus|Cytisus +sordidus K.Koch
  • Cytisus strigulosus Godr. & Gren.
  • Cytisus szeplighettis Koehne ex Kuntze
  • Cytisus teloninsis Loisel.
  • Cytisus teneriffae Hoffmanns.
  • Cytisus teneriffianus Steud.
  • Cytisus tetragonus Sessé & Moc.
  • Cytisus thessalus Heldr. & Orph. ex Nyman
  • Cytisus thirkeanus K.Koch
  • Cytisus thommasini Vis. ex Rchb.
  • Cytisus tournefortianus Loisel.
  • Cytisus tragacanthaeformis Pourr. ex Willk. & Lange
  • Cytisus trifolius Briq.
  • Cytisus unibracteatus Lindem.
  • Cytisus unilateralis Vell.
  • Cytisus uralensis Ledeb.
  • Cytisus urumoffii Davidoff ex Stoyanoff
  • Cytisus velutinus hort. ex Lavallée
  • Cytisus villarsii Vis.
  • Cytisus virgatus Link
  • Cytisus virgatus Salisb.
  • Cytisus virgatus Vest
  • Cytisus virgatus Vuk.
  • Cytisus virgulatus Rchb.
  • Cytisus viscosus Hill
  • Cytisus visianii H.Lindb.
  • Cytisus weissmanni Wettst.

Hybrids and cultivarsEdit

The following hybrids have been described:[5]

  • +Laburnocytisus 'Adamii' (Poit.) C. K. Schneid. (Laburnum anagyroides + Chamaecytisus purpureus) (not a true hybrid but a graft-chimera)
  • Cytisus ×beanii G.Nicholson (Cytisus ardoini × Cytisus purgans)
  • Cytisus ×czerniaevii Krecz.
  • Cytisus ×dallimorei Rolfe (Cytisus multiflorus × Cytisus scoparius)
  • Cytisus ×praecox Beauverd (Cytisus multiflorus × Cytisus purgans)
  • Cytisus ×syreiszczikowi V.I. Krecz.
  • Cytisus ×vadasii J.Wagner
  • Cytisus ×versicolor Dippel (Cytisus hirsutus × Cytisus purpureus)
  • Cytisus ×virescens Beck
  • Cytisus ×watereri Wettst.

Species have been widely cultivated and hybridised, and the following cultivars have gained the Royal Horticultural Society's Award of Garden Merit:

  • 'Boskoop Ruby'[9] (deep crimson flowers,[10])
  • 'Burkwoodii'[11] (cerise red or crimson red and yellow edged flowers,[10])
  • 'Hollandia'[12] (red and pale cream flowers,[10])
  • C. ×kewensis[13] (Cytisus ardoinii × Cytisus multiflorus; small, prostrate shrub with cream flowers)
  • C. ×praecox 'Allgold'[14] (yellow flowers)
  • C. ×praecox 'Warminster' [15] (pale yellow flowers)
  • 'Zeelandia'[16] (lilac, pink and cream flowers,[10])
  • Cytisus 'Lena' is noteworthy also as a popular garden shrub of mainly hybrid origins.

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Cardoso D, Pennington RT, de Queiroz LP, Boatwright JS, Van Wyk BE, Wojciechowski MF, Lavin M (2013). "Reconstructing the deep-branching relationships of the papilionoid legumes". S Afr J Bot. 89: 58–75. doi:10.1016/j.sajb.2013.05.001.
  2. ^ RHS A–Z encyclopedia of garden plants. United Kingdom: Dorling Kindersley. 2008. p. 1136. ISBN 1405332964.
  3. ^ "ILDIS LegumeWeb entry for Cytisus". International Legume Database & Information Service. Cardiff School of Computer Science & Informatics. Retrieved 17 April 2014.
  4. ^ USDA; ARS; National Genetic Resources Program. "GRIN species records of Cytisus". Germplasm Resources Information Network—(GRIN) [Online Database]. National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland. Retrieved 17 April 2014.
  5. ^ a b c "The Plant List entry for Cytisus". The Plant List. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew and the Missouri Botanical Garden. 2013. Retrieved 17 April 2014.
  6. ^ Some sources treat Cytisus ingramii as a synonym of Cytisus commutatus.
  7. ^ Some sources treat Cytisus racemosus as a synonym of Genista stenopetala.
  8. ^ Some sources treat Cytisus stenopetalus as member of the genus Genista: Genista stenopetala.
  9. ^ "RHS Plant Selector—Cytisus 'Boskoop Ruby'". Retrieved 17 July 2013.
  10. ^ a b c d Andy McIndoe The Horticulture Gardener’s Guides - Shrubs (2005), p. 144, at Google Books
  11. ^ "RHS Plant Selector—Cytisus 'Burkwoodii'". Retrieved 17 July 2013.
  12. ^ "RHS Plant Selector—Cytisus 'Hollandia'". Retrieved 17 July 2013.
  13. ^ "RHS Plant Selector—Cytisus ×kewensis". Retrieved 17 July 2013.
  14. ^ "RHS Plant Selector—Cytisus ×praecox 'Allgold". Retrieved 17 July 2013.
  15. ^ "RHS Plant Selector—Cytisus ×praecox 'Warminster". Retrieved 17 July 2013.
  16. ^ "RHS Plant Selector - Cytisus 'Zeelandia'". Retrieved 17 July 2013.