Cracker (term)

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Cracker, sometimes white cracker or cracka, is a racial epithet directed towards white people,[1][2][3] used especially against poor rural whites in the Southern United States. It is sometimes used in a neutral context in reference to a native of Florida or Georgia (see Florida cracker and Georgia cracker).[4]

"A pair of Georgia crackers" as depicted by illustrator James Wells Champney in the memoir The Great South by Edward King, 1873


A 1783 pejorative use of crackers specified men who "descended from convicts that were transported from Great Britain to Virginia at different times, and inherit so much profligacy from their ancestors, that they are the most abandoned set of men on earth".[5] Benjamin Franklin, in his memoirs (1790), referred to "a race of runnagates and crackers, equally wild and savage as the Indians" who inhabit the "desert[ed] woods and mountains".[6]

The term could have also derived from the Middle English cnac, craic, or crak, which originally meant the sound of a cracking whip but came to refer to "loud conversation, bragging talk".[7] In the Elizabethan era (1558-1603) this could refer to "entertaining conversation" (one may be said to "crack" a joke) and cracker could be used to describe loud braggarts; this term is still in use in Ireland, Scotland and Northern England, also adopted into Gaelic and Irish as craic in the late 20th century. It is documented in William Shakespeare's King John (c. 1595): "What cracker is this same that deafs our ears with this abundance of superfluous breath?"[8][9] This usage is illustrated in a letter to the Earl of Dartmouth which reads:[10]

I should explain to your Lordship what is meant by Crackers; a name they have got from being great boasters; they are a lawless set of rascalls on the frontiers of Virginia, Maryland, the Carolinas, and Georgia, who often change their places of abode.

The compound corn-cracker was used of poor white farmers (by 1808), especially of Georgians, but also extended to residents of northern Florida, from the cracked kernels of corn which formed the staple food of this class of people. This possibility is given in the 1911 edition of Encyclopædia Britannica,[11] but the Oxford English Dictionary says a derivation of the 18th-century simplex cracker from the 19th-century compound corn-cracker is doubtful.[12]

A "cracker cowboy" with his Florida Cracker Horse and dog by Frederick Remington, 1895

It has been suggested that white slave foremen in the antebellum South were called "crackers" owing to their practice of "cracking the whip" to drive and punish slaves.[13][14][15] Whips were also cracked over pack animals,[16][17] so "cracker" may have referred to whip cracking more generally:[18]

The whips used by some of these people are called 'crackers', from their having a piece of buckskin at the end. Hence the people who cracked the whips came to be thus named.


Meliorative and neutral usageEdit

"Cracker" has also been used as a proud or jocular self-description in the past.[19] With the huge influx of new residents from the North, "cracker" is used informally by some white residents of Florida and Georgia ("Florida cracker" or "Georgia cracker") to indicate that their family has lived there for many generations.

Frederick Law Olmsted, a prominent landscape architect from Connecticut, visited the South as a journalist in the 1850s and wrote that "some crackers owned a good many Negroes, and were by no means so poor as their appearance indicated."[20]

In On the Origin of Species, Charles Darwin quotes a Professor Wyman as saying, "one of the 'crackers' (i.e. Virginia squatters) added, 'we select the black members of a litter [of pigs] for raising, as they alone have a good chance of living."

Late 19th century cattle drivers of the southeastern scrub land cracked whips to move cattle.[21] Many slaves and free blacks joined the Seminoles and found work in the cattle business.[22] Descendants of crackers are often proud of their heritage.[19]

In 1947, the student body of Florida State University voted on the name of their athletic symbol. From a list of more than 100 choices, Seminoles was selected. The other finalists, in order of finish, were Statesmen, Rebels, Tarpons, Fighting Warriors, and Crackers.[23][24]

Georgia Cracker label depicting a boy with peaches

Before the Milwaukee Braves baseball team moved to Atlanta, the Atlanta minor league baseball team was known as the "Atlanta Crackers". The team existed under this name from 1901 until 1965. They were members of the Southern Association from their inception until 1961, and members of the International League from 1961 until they were moved to Richmond, Virginia in 1965.

Singer-songwriter Randy Newman, on his socio-politically themed album Good Old Boys (1974) uses the term "cracker" on the song "Kingfish" ("I'm a cracker, You one too, Gonna take good care of you"). The song's subject is Huey Long, populist Governor and then Senator for Louisiana (1928–1935). The term is also used in "Louisiana 1927" from the same album, where the line "Ain't it a shame what the river has done to this poor cracker's land" is attributed to President Coolidge.

In 2008, former President Bill Clinton used the term "cracker" on Larry King Live to describe white voters he was attempting to win over for Barack Obama: "You know, they think that because of who I am and where my politic[al] base has traditionally been, they may want me to go sort of hustle up what Lawton Chiles used to call the 'cracker vote' there."[25]

Crackin' Good Snacks (a division of Winn-Dixie, a Southern grocery chain) has sold crackers similar to Ritz crackers under the name "Georgia Crackers". They sometimes were packaged in a red tin with a picture of The Crescent, an antebellum plantation house in Valdosta, Georgia.

The Florida Cracker Trail is a route which cuts across central Florida, following the historic trail of the old cattle drives.

On June 27, 2013, in the trial of George Zimmerman concerning the shooting of Trayvon Martin, a witness under examination (Rachel Jeantel) testified that Martin, an African-American, had told her over the telephone that a "creepy ass cracker is following me" minutes before the altercation between the two men occurred. Zimmerman's attorney then asked her if "creepy ass cracker" was an offensive term, to which she responded "no". The testimony and response brought about both media and public debate about the use of the word "cracker". A CNN report referenced the regional nature of the term, noting both that "some in Florida use the term in a non-derogatory, colloquial sense" and that it is sometimes regarded as a "sharp racial insult that resonates with white southerners even if white northerners don't get it".[26]

Pejorative usageEdit

In his 1964 speech "The Ballot or the Bullet", Malcolm X used the term "cracker" in reference to white people in a pejorative context.[27] In one passage, he remarked, "It's time for you and me to stop sitting in this country, letting some cracker senators, Northern crackers and Southern crackers, sit there in Washington, D.C., and come to a conclusion in their mind that you and I are supposed to have civil rights. There's no white man going to tell me anything about my rights."[27]

On November 29, 1993, in a speech given at Kean College in New Jersey, Nation of Islam spokesman Khalid Abdul Muhammad called Pope John Paul II "a no good cracker".[28]

In 2012, Michael Dunn shot and killed Jordan Davis in an argument over loud music coming from a car. Dunn claimed he had heard "something something cracker" and "I should fucking kill that mother fucker".[29][30][31][32]

In 2021, a family home and cars were vandalized in what was most likely a case of mistaken identity. In addition to other vandalism, the words "die cracker" were spray painted on a car in front of the house.[33]

See alsoEdit



  1. ^ Cash, Wilbur Joseph (1941). The Mind of the South. Vintage Books. ISBN 9780679736479. Retrieved 6 March 2020.
  2. ^ Foreman, Tom. "'Cracker' conveys history of bigotry that still resonates". CNN. Cable News Network. Retrieved 6 March 2020.
  3. ^ "Cracker". Merriam Webster Online Dictionary. Retrieved 30 November 2018.
  4. ^ Ste. Claire, Dana (2006). Cracker: Cracker Culture in Florida History. University Press of Florida.
  5. ^ Irvin Painter, Nell (2011). The History of White People. W. W. Norton & Company. ISBN 9780393079494 – via Google Books.
  6. ^ Franklin, Benjamin (1790). Memoirs of the Late Dr. Benjamin Franklin: With a review of his pamphlet, entitled "Information to those who would wish to remove to America". London: A. Grant – via Google Books. Published posthumously, editor unknown.
  7. ^ Dolan, Terence P. (2006). A Dictionary of Hiberno-English. Gill & MacMillan. p. 64. ISBN 978-0-7171-4039-8.
  8. ^ Shakespeare, William (2008) [1623]. Braunmuller, A. R. (ed.). The Life and Death of King John. Oxford World's Classics series. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-953714-3. The play was completed c. 1595, but not published until 1623.
  9. ^ Wedgwood, Hensleigh (1878). A Dictionary of English Etymology. Macmillan & Co.
  10. ^ Burrison, John A. (2002). "Arts & Culture". Crackers. Georgia Encyclopedia. Retrieved September 29, 2013.
  11. ^ Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Cracker" . Encyclopædia Britannica. 7 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 359.
  12. ^ "cracker". Oxford English Dictionary (2nd ed.). Oxford University Press. 1989. definition 4.
  13. ^ Smitherman, Geneva (2000). Black Talk: Words and Phrases from the Hood to the Amen Corner. Houghton Mifflin Books. p. 100.
  14. ^ Herbst, Philip H. (1997). The Color of Words: An Encyclopaedic Dictionary of Ethnic Bias in the United States. Intercultural Press. p. 6z1.
  15. ^ Major, Clarence (1994). Juba to Jive: A Dictionary of African-American Slang. Puffin Books. ISBN 978-0-14-051306-6.
  16. ^ Buckingham, James S. (1842), The Slave States of America, Fisher, Son, & Co., p. 210
  17. ^ "Cattle and Cowboys in Florida". Florida Center for Instructional Technology, College of Education, University of South Florida. 2002.
  18. ^ Thornton, Richard H. (1912). An American Glossary. JB Lippincott. pp. 218–219.
  19. ^ a b "A History of the Florida Cracker Cowboys". Tampa Magazine. 2018-07-03. Retrieved 2019-10-07.
  20. ^ Olmsted, Frederick Law (1856). Our Slave States. Dix & Edwards. p. 454.
  21. ^ "Florida Cracker Cattle Association". Retrieved 2019-10-07.
  22. ^ "The Black Cowboys Of Florida". Retrieved 2019-10-07.
  23. ^ "FSU Adopts Seminoles as the Nickname for Athletic Teams". Retrieved 2010-11-01.
  24. ^ "". Retrieved 2010-11-01.
  25. ^ Smith, Ben (2008-09-24). "Bill Clinton: Will respect Jewish holidays, then 'hustle up ... cracker vote' in Florida – Ben Smith". Politico. Retrieved 2010-11-01.
  26. ^ Foreman, Tom. "'Cracker' conveys history of bigotry that still resonates", CNN, 2 July 2013, accessed 30 July 2013.
  27. ^ a b X, Malcolm. "The Ballot or the Bullet". Retrieved 25 March 2012.
  28. ^ "Farrakhan Invited To Speak at School". The New York Times. 1994-03-05.
  29. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2014-02-22. Retrieved 2014-02-22.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  30. ^ McWhorter, John (2014-02-17). "How Not to Lose Another Jordan Davis". Time.
  31. ^ Walker, Tim (2014-02-16). "Hung jury for Michael Dunn, white killer of unarmed black teenager Jordan Davis". The Independent. London.
  32. ^ "Accused "Loud Music" Shooter Dunn: "It was life or death"". CBS News. 2014-02-11.
  33. ^ Missing or empty |title= (help)


  • Brown, Roger Lyle. Ghost Dancing on the Cracker Circuit: The Culture Festivals in the American South (1997)
  • Burke, Karanja. "Cracker"
  • Croom, Adam M. (2011). "Slurs". Language Sciences. 33 (3): 343–358. doi:10.1016/j.langsci.2010.11.005.
  • Cassidy, Frederic G. Dictionary of American Regional English. Harvard University Press, Vol. I, 1985: 825–26
  • De Graffenried, Clare. "The Georgia Cracker in the Cotton Mills." Century 41 (February 1891): 483–98.
  • Keen, George Gillett and Williams, Sarah Pamela. Cracker Times and Pioneer Lives: The Florida Reminiscences of George Gillett Keen and Sarah Pamela Williams edited by James M Denham and Canter Brown Jr. U of South Carolina Press 2000
  • McWhiney, Grady. Cracker Culture: Celtic Ways in the Old South (Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press, 1988).
  • McWhiney, Grady. Confederate Crackers and Cavaliers. (Abilene, Tex.: McWhiney Foundation Press, c. 2002. Pp. 312. ISBN 1-893114-27-9, collected essays)
  • Major, Clarence (1994). Juba to Jive: A Dictionary of African-American Slang. Puffin Books.
  • Otoo, John Solomon. "Cracker: The History of a Southeastern Ethnic, Economic, and Racial Epithet", Names' 35 (1987): 28–39.
  • Osley, Frank L. Plain Folk of the Old South (1949)
  • Presley, Delma E. "The Crackers of Georgia", Georgia Historical Quarterly 60 (summer 1976): 102–16.

External linksEdit

  • Cracker – Entry in the New Georgia Encyclopedia