Cowardice is a trait wherein fear and excessive self-concern override doing or saying what is right, good, and of help to others or oneself in a time of need—it is the opposite of courage. As a label, "cowardice" indicates a failure of character in the face of a challenge. One who succumbs to cowardice is known as a coward, or informally a chicken.
As the opposite of an action or trait that many existing and formerly extant cultures demand, cowardice rates as a character flaw that many societies and their representatives stigmatize and/or punish.
According to the Online Etymology Dictionary, the word coward came into English from the Old French word coart (modern French couard), which is a combination of the word for "tail" (Modern French queue, Latin cauda) and an agent noun suffix. It would therefore have meant "one with a tail", which may conjur an image of an animal displaying its tail in flight of fear ("turning tail"), or a dog's habit of putting its tail between its legs when it is afraid. Like many other English words of French origin, this word was introduced in the English language by the French-speaking Normans, after the Norman conquest of England in 1066.
Acts of cowardice have long been punishable by military law, which defines a wide range of cowardly offenses, including desertion in face of the enemy and surrendering to the enemy against orders. The punishment for such acts is typically severe, ranging from corporal punishment to the death sentence. Cowardly conduct is specifically mentioned within the United States Uniform Code of Military Justice.
"Cowardice" was punishable by execution during World War I, and those who were caught were often court-martialed and, in many cases, executed by firing squad. These men were often not commemorated on war memorials, and their families often did not receive benefits and had to endure social stigma. However, many decades later, they all received posthumous pardons in the Armed Forces Act 2006 and have been commemorated with the Shot at Dawn Memorial. Unlike British, French, German, and Soviet/Russian forces, the United States forces tried soldiers for cowardice but never followed through with execution while German commanders were less inclined to use execution as a form of punishment.
- Dictionary.com cowardice: "[the] lack of courage to face danger, difficulty, opposition, pain, etc."
- From French to English:. Faculty.uml.edu. Retrieved on 2015-12-16.
- "Executed WW1 soldiers to be given pardons". The Guardian. 16 August 2006.
- "Call to rethink cases of French WWI 'coward' soldiers". BBC. 1 October 2013.
- Woodward, David R. (2009). World War I Almanac. Infobase Publishing. p. 28.