A coupe or coupé (/kuːˈpeɪ/, also US: /kuːp/) is a passenger car with a sloping or truncated rear roofline and two doors.
The term coupé was first applied to horse-drawn carriages for two passengers without rear-facing seats. It comes from the French past participle of couper, "cut".
Etymology and pronunciation Edit
Coupé (French pronunciation: [kupe]) is based on the past participle of the French verb couper ("to cut") and thus indicates a car which has been "cut" or made shorter than standard. It was first applied to horse-drawn carriages for two passengers without rear-facing seats. These berlines coupés or carrosses coupés ("clipped carriages") were eventually clipped to coupés.
There are two common pronunciations in English:
- /kuːˈpeɪ/ (koo-PAY) – the anglicized version of the French pronunciation of coupé.
- /kuːp/ (KOOP) – as a spelling pronunciation when the word is written without an accent. This is the usual pronunciation and spelling in the United States, with the pronunciation entering American vernacular no later than 1936 and featuring in the Beach Boys' hit 1963 song "Little Deuce Coupe".
A coupe is a fixed-roof car with a sloping rear roofline and one or two rows of seats. However, there is some debate surrounding whether a coupe must have two doors for passenger egress or whether cars with four doors can also be considered coupes. This debate has arisen since the early 2000s, when four-door cars such as the Mazda RX-8 and Mercedes-Benz CLS-Class have been marketed as "four-door coupes" or "quad coupes", although the Rover P5 was a much earlier example, with a variant introduced in 1962 having a lower, sleeker roofline marketed as the Rover P5 Coupé.
In the 1940s and 1950s, coupes were distinguished from sedans by their shorter roof area and sportier profile. Similarly, in more recent times, when a model is sold in both coupe and sedan body styles, generally the coupe is sportier and more compact.
The 1977 version of International Standard ISO 3833—Road vehicles - Types - Terms and definitions—defines a coupe as having two doors (along with a fixed roof, usually with limited rear volume, at least two seats in at least one row and at least two side windows). On the other hand, the United States Society of Automotive Engineers publication J1100[when?] does not specify the number of doors, instead defining a coupe as having a rear interior volume of less than 33 cu ft (934 L).
The definition of coupe started to blur when manufacturers began to produce cars with a 2+2 body style (which have a sleek, sloping roofline, two doors, and two functional seats up front, plus two small seats in the back).
Some manufacturers also blur the definition of a coupe by applying this description to models featuring a hatchback or a rear cargo area access door that opens upwards. Most often also featuring a fold-down back seat, the hatchback or liftback layout of these cars improves their practicality and cargo room.
The coupe body style originated from the berline horse-drawn carriage. The coupe version of the berline was introduced in the 18th century as a shortened ("cut") version with no rear-facing seat. Normally, a coupe had a fixed glass window in the front of the passenger compartment. The coupe was considered an ideal vehicle for women to use to go shopping or to make social visits.
The early coupe automobile's passenger compartment followed in general conception the design of horse-drawn coupes, with the driver in the open at the front and an enclosure behind him for two passengers on one bench seat. The French variant for this word thus denoted a car with a small passenger compartment.
By the 1910s, the term had evolved to denote a two-door car with the driver and up to two passengers in an enclosure with a single bench seat. The coupé de ville, or coupe chauffeur, was an exception, retaining the open driver's section at front.
In 1916, the Society of Automobile Engineers suggested nomenclature for car bodies that included the following:
Coupe: An enclosed car operated from the inside with seats for two or three and sometimes a backward-facing fourth seat.
Coupelet: A small car seating two or three with a folding top and full height doors with fully retractable windows.
Convertible coupe: A roadster with a removable coupe roof.
During the 20th century, the term coupe was applied to various close-coupled cars (where the rear seat that is located further forward than usual and the front seat further back than usual).
Since the 1960s the term coupe has generally referred to a two-door car with a fixed roof.
Since 2005, several models with four doors have been marketed as "four-door coupes", however reactions are mixed about whether these models are actually sedans instead of coupes. According to Edmunds, an American automotive guide, "the four-door coupe category doesn't really exist."
A berlinetta is a lightweight sporty two-door car, typically with two-seats but also including 2+2 cars.
A club coupe is a two-door car with a larger rear-seat passenger area, compared with the smaller rear-seat area in a 2+2 body style.
A hardtop coupe is a two-door car that lacks a structural pillar ("B" pillar) between the front and rear side windows. When these windows are lowered, the effect is like that of a convertible coupe with the windows down. The hardtop body style was popular in the United States from the early 1950s until the 1970s. It was also available in European and Japanese markets. Safety regulations for roof structures to protect passengers in a rollover were proposed, limiting development of new models. The hardtop body style went out of style with consumers while the automakers focused on cost reduction and increasing efficiencies.
Saab used the term "combi coupé" for a car body similar to the liftback.
A two-door car with no rear seat or with a removable rear seat intended for traveling salespeople and other vendors carrying their wares with them. American manufacturers developed this style of a coupe in the late 1930s.
Four-door coupe / quad coupeEdit
A four-door fastback car with a coupe-like roofline at the rear. The low-roof design reduces back-seat passenger access and headroom. The designation was first used for the low-roof model of the 1962–1973 Rover P5, followed by the 1992–1996 Nissan Leopard / Infiniti J30. Recent examples include the 2005 Mercedes-Benz CLS, 2010 Audi A7 , Volkswagen Arteon, and 2012 BMW 6 Series Gran Coupe.
Similarly, several cars with one or two small rear doors for rear seat passenger egress and no B-pillar have been marketed as "quad coupes". For example, the 2003 Saturn Ion and 2003 Mazda RX-8.
Particularly popular in Europe, many cars are designed with coupe styling, but a three-door hatchback/liftback layout to improve practicality, including cars such as the Jaguar E-Type, Mitsubishi 3000GT, Datsun 240Z, Toyota Supra, Mazda RX-7, Alfa Romeo Brera, Ford/Mercury Cougar and Volkswagen Scirocco.
A two-door designed for driving to the opera with easy access to the rear seats. Features sometimes included a folding front seat next to the driver or a compartment to store top hats.
Often they would have solid rear-quarter panels, with small, circular windows, to enable the occupants to see out without being seen. These opera windows were revived on many U.S. automobiles during the 1970s and early 1980s.[need quotation to verify]
The three-window coupe (commonly just "three-window") is a style of automobile characterized by two side windows and a backlight (rear window). The front windscreens are not counted. The three-window coupe has a distinct difference from the five-window coupe, which has an additional window on each side behind the front doors. These two-door cars typically have small-sized bodies with only a front seat and an occasional small rear seat.
The style was popular from the 1920s until the beginning of World War II. While many manufacturers produced three-window coupes, the 1932 Ford coupe is often considered the classic hot rod.
Some SUVs or crossovers with sloping rear rooflines are marketed as "coupe crossover SUVs" or "coupe SUVs", even though they have four side doors for passenger egress to the seats and rear hatches for cargo area access.
Positioning in model rangeEdit
In the United States, some coupes are "simply line-extenders two-door variants of family sedans", while others have significant differences to their four-door counterparts.
The AMC Matador coupe (1974–1978) has a shorter wheelbase with a distinct aerodynamic design and fastback styling, sharing almost nothing with the conventional three-box design and more "conservative" four-door versions.
Similarly, the Chrysler Sebring and Dodge Stratus coupes and sedans (late-1990 through 2000s), have little in common except their names. The coupes were engineered by Mitsubishi and built in Illinois, while the sedans were developed by Chrysler and built in Michigan. Some coupes may share platforms with contemporary sedans.
Coupes may also exist as model lines in their own right, either closely related to other models, but named differently – such as the Alfa Romeo GT or Infiniti Q60 – or have little engineering in common with other vehicles from the manufacturer – such as the Toyota GT86.
2017 Ford Mustang
1932 Ford Model 18 - a three-window coupe
1978–1987 Saab 900 marketed as a combi coupe
2010 Mazda RX-8 - marketed as a four-door coupe
1961 Ferrari 250 GT Berlinetta - a Berlinetta coupe
1948 Bentley coupe de ville
- ^ Brandt, Eric (28 November 2017). "For the Last Time, a Coupe Is a Car With Two Doors". Autotrader. Retrieved 24 February 2021.
- ^ Lindland, Rebecca (23 March 2020). "What Is a Coupe Car?". J.D. Power. Retrieved 24 February 2021.
- ^ a b c "Coach Building Terminology". Coachbuilt.com. 2004. Retrieved 14 July 2018.
- ^ a b c d e Adolphus, David Traver (March 2007). "Club Coupes - If you think you know what a Club Coupe is, think again". Hemmings Classic Car. Retrieved 14 July 2018.
- ^ a b Haajanen, Lennart W. (2003). Illustrated Dictionary of Automobile Body Styles. Illustrations by Bertil Nydén. McFarland. pp. 16, 18, 20, 50. ISBN 0-7864-1276-3. LCCN 2002014546.
- ^ a b "coupé, n.3", Oxford English Dictionary, Oxford University Press, 1893.
- ^ "coupé", Merriam-Webster Dictionary, Merriam-Webster, retrieved 30 August 2020 and pronounced as one syllable.
- ^ "Porsche Actually Made a Video on How to Pronounce Its Name". roadandtrack.com. 9 December 2016. Retrieved 13 April 2018.
- ^ Mencken, Henry L. (1936). The American Language (4th ed.). p. 347.
I have... heard... coop for coupé
- ^ "For the Last Time, a Coupe Is a Car With Two Doors". autotrader.com. Retrieved 16 April 2018.
- ^ "A Sedan or a Coupe: What's the difference?". middletownhonda.com. Archived from the original on 23 January 2021. Retrieved 16 April 2018.
- ^ Stewart, Jack. "Range Rover's $295K Coupe SUV Proves No Niche Is Too Small". Wired. Retrieved 16 April 2018.
- ^ "Sedan vs. Coupe Cars: Meaning, Definition & Differences". automoblog.net. Retrieved 28 February 2021.
- ^ Breitenstein, Jeff (2004). The ultimate hot rod dictionary : a-bombs to zoomies. Motorbooks International. p. 55. ISBN 9780760318232. Retrieved 22 April 2015.
- ^ a b "Coupe – Coupe Body Style – Two Door Coupe". autobytel.com. Retrieved 22 April 2015.
- ^ "Coupé". Random House Kernerman Webster’s College Dictionary. 2010. Retrieved 22 April 2015.
- ^ Technical Committee ISO/TC22, Road vehicles (1 December 1977), ISO 3833-1977: Road vehicles – Types – Terms and definitions (ISO International Standard) (Second ed.), Geneva, Switzerland: International Organization for Standardization, Clause 220.127.116.11
- ^ "J1100: Motor Vehicle Dimensions - SAE International". sae.org. Retrieved 20 April 2019.
- ^ Jack (28 December 2022). "What is a Coupe Car". USACoupe. Retrieved 29 December 2022.
- ^ Weber, Bob (26 August 2017). "What is the difference between coupe and sedan?". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved 14 July 2018.
- ^ "hatchback - definition by the Free Online Dictionary, Thesaurus and Encyclopedia". Thefreedictionary.com. n.d. Retrieved 19 February 2020.
- ^ "Hatchback - Definition from the Free Merriam-Webster Dictionary". Merriam-webster.com. Retrieved 19 February 2020.
- ^ Collins, Dan (4 February 2020). "Best Hatchbacks". Carbibles. Retrieved 19 February 2020.
- ^ Adolphus, David Traver (March 2007). "Club Coupes - If you think you know what a Club Coupe is, think again". Hemmings Classic Car. Retrieved 30 March 2020.
Coupé (some designers still insist on the 'koo-pay' pronunciation) is the French verb meaning 'to cut,' and it was first applied to 19th Century carriages, where the rear-facing seats had been eliminated, or cut out.
- ^ Haajanen (2017, p. 52). "When the Berline body was shortened the Berline Coupe, or just Coupe, resulted."
- ^ "Royal carriages". kreml.ru. Retrieved 14 April 2018.
- ^ Haajanen 2003, p. 50.
- ^ Stratton, Ezra (1878). "Chapter VIII. French carriages, including historical associations". World on Wheels. New York. p. 242. ISBN 0-405-09006-4. Retrieved 4 September 2014.
For the use of ladies making calls or engaged in shopping, no better carriage has yet been invented.
- ^ a b Haajanen, Lennart W. (2017). Illustrated Dictionary of Automobile Body Styles (Second ed.). McFarland. pp. 52–53, 57. ISBN 978-0-7864-9918-2. Retrieved 14 July 2018.
- ^ Haajanen 2003, p. 51.
- ^ Clough, Albert L. (1913). A dictionary of automobile terms. The Horseless Age Company. p. 89. Retrieved 17 May 2015.
- ^ Clough 1913, p. 89.
- ^ a b "What's What in Automobile Bodies Officially Determined". The New York Times. 20 August 1916. Retrieved 22 April 2015.
Here it is, with other body types and distinctions, officially determined recently by the Nomenclature Division of the Society of Automobile Engineers
- ^ Haajanen 2003, pp. 51, 55–56.
- ^ Forbes, Kingston (1922). The Principles of Automobile Body Design: covering the fundamentals of open and closed passenger body design. Ware Bros. p. 238. Retrieved 22 April 2015.
- ^ Clough 1913, p. 33.
- ^ Beattie, Ian (1977). The Complete Book of Automobile Body Design. Yeovil, UK: Haynes Publishing Group. p. 17. ISBN 0854292179.
- ^ "Sedan vs. Coupe: What's the Difference?". carmax.com. Retrieved 14 April 2018.
- ^ "Car Review: 2005 Mercedes-Benz CLS 500". driving.ca. Retrieved 14 April 2018.
- ^ "2018 Mercedes-Benz CLS Class Review". thecarconnection.com. Retrieved 14 April 2018.
- ^ "2005 Mercedes-Benz CLS 500 - First Look". superstre etonline.com. 16 March 2005. Retrieved 14 April 2018.
- ^ Montoya, Ronald (28 May 2013). "Defining Vehicle Types". Edmunds. Retrieved 14 July 2018.
- ^ "Porsche 960: une nouvelle berlinette à moteur flat-8". autonews.fr. 28 April 2016.
- ^ a b "A History of Hardtops". Hemmings Classic Car. April 2006. Retrieved 28 February 2021.
- ^ Niedermeyer, Paul (27 July 2020). "Curbside Classic: 1984 Subaru GL Hardtop Coupe – A Requiem For The Affordable Hardtop". Curbside Classic. Retrieved 28 February 2021.
- ^ "Jaguar XK140 Hardtop Coupe". Supercars.net. 2 March 2016.
- ^ Severson, Aaron (9 April 2008). "What is a hardtop?". Ate Up With Motor. Retrieved 28 February 2021.
- ^ Jazar, Reza N. (2008). Vehicle dynamics: theory and applications. Springer-Verlag. p. 31. ISBN 978-0-387-74243-4. Retrieved 22 April 2015.
- ^ "Automotive History: Trying To Make (Business Coupe) Sense Of The Gremlin". curbsideclassic.com. Retrieved 14 April 2018.
- ^ Powell, Philip (8 January 2008). "The Fastback is Back Thanks to Mercedes, Audi, BMW, Volkswagen". Classical Drives. Archived from the original on 1 August 2013. Retrieved 22 April 2015.
- ^ Langworth, Richard M. (1986). Complete book of collectible cars, 1930–1980. Random House Value Publishing. p. 389. ISBN 978-0-517-47934-6.
- ^ "The Infiniti J30 Was A Four-Door Coupe Before It Was Fashionable". kinja.com. Retrieved 21 April 2019.
- ^ Mercedes CLS-Klasse, Auto, Motor und Sport, retrieved 18 June 2011
- ^ "Neuer Audi A7 Sportback: Erste Bilder, Details und Preise" [New Audi A7 sportback: First pictures, details and pricing] (in German). Heise. Retrieved 22 April 2015.
- ^ Giuliani, Stefan (January 2011), Audi A7 Sportback 3.0 TDI quattro S tronic (DPF) (PDF) (in German), ADAC, retrieved 22 April 2015
- ^ "Alfa Romeo Brera | Used Car Buying Guide". Autocar. 10 January 2017.
- ^ Andy Enright (8 April 2009). "Ford Cougar (1998 - 2002) used car review". RAC.
- ^ "The Top Gear car review: Volkswagen Scirocco". Top Gear. 13 January 2015.
- ^ "Dictionary of Historic Automotive Terms". Chalk Hill Educational Media. Archived from the original on 14 May 2011. Retrieved 22 April 2015.
- ^ Burness, Tad (2005). American Car Spotter's Bible 1940–1980. Krause Publications. p. 736. ISBN 978-0-89689-179-1. Retrieved 6 April 2010.
- ^ "Archival Revival: One-of-a-kind Nash here a few more weeks". kenoshanews.com. Retrieved 28 April 2018.
- ^ Frazee, Irving Augustus (1949). Automotive Fundamentals. American Technical Society. p. 81.
- ^ Schueter, Roger (17 December 2017). "What's the difference between an old three-window coupe and a five-window model?". Belleville News-Democrat. Retrieved 15 December 2020.
- ^ Wagner, Rob. "What Is the Difference Between a 1934 Ford 3-Window & 5-Window Coupe?". It Still Runs. Retrieved 15 December 2020.
- ^ Kilchermann, Lori (21 November 2020). "What is a Three Window Coupe?". WiseGeek. Retrieved 15 December 2020.
- ^ Bernsau, Tim (6 October 2020). "Hot Rod 3-Pack: 1932 Ford Three-Window Coupes". Hot Rod. Retrieved 15 December 2020.
- ^ Thacker, Tony (2007). '32 Ford Deuce: the official 75th anniversary edition. Motorbooks. ISBN 9780760317419.
- ^ Taylor, Thom (15 March 2018). "How the 1932 Ford Deuce became the quintessential hot rod". Hagerty. Retrieved 15 December 2020.
- ^ Loh, Edward (February 2008). "Comparison: 2008 Honda Accord Coupe vs 2008 Mitsubishi Eclipse vs 2008 Nissan Altima Coupe (Front-wheel-drive coupe comparison)". Motor Trend. Retrieved 22 April 2015.
- ^ Severson, Aaron (25 December 2009). "What's a Matador? AMC's Midsize Classic, Rebel, and Matador Coupe". ateupwithmotor.com. Retrieved 22 April 2015.
- ^ "Fish Out of Water: AMC's 1974-78 Matador Coupe". Mac's Motor City Garage. 6 May 2018. Retrieved 28 February 2021.
- ^ Dunton, Pete (15 December 2008). "1974 AMC Matador Coupe – the Forgotten Coupe". Old Car Memories. Retrieved 28 February 2021.
- ^ Markus, Frank (1 September 2009). "Dodge Stratus and Chrysler Sebring". Car and Driver. Retrieved 28 February 2021.
- ^ Krebs, Michelle (18 February 2001). "Dodge Stratus and Chrysler Sebring; When Lightning Doesn't Strike Twice". The New York Times. Retrieved 22 April 2015.