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Correlates of War

The Correlates of War project is an academic study of the history of warfare. It was started in 1963 at the University of Michigan by political scientist J. David Singer. Concerned with collecting data about the history of wars and conflict among states, the project has driven forward quantitative research into the causes of warfare. The Correlates of War project seeks to facilitate the collection, dissemination, and use of accurate and reliable quantitative data in international relations. Key principles of the project include a commitment to standard scientific principles of replication, data reliability, documentation, review, and the transparency of data collection procedures.

The project has collected data on many attributes of international politics and national capabilities over time. Available data collected by the Correlates of War project start in 1816. The most widely used databases developed by the project include an identification of independent states since 1816, a list of interstate and civil wars since 1816, a list of "militarized disputes" (militarized crises that end short of war), and national capabilities measured annually for all countries since 1816 (including the size of countries' military, their energy consumption as a proxy for industrialization, population size, urbanized population, and raw material production of iron and steel). Other databases include an identification of all alliances since 1816, territorial relationships and changes over time, and membership in intergovernmental organizations. All Correlates of War databases are available free for public and academic use with proper citation.

In addition to generating these several data sets and constructing quantitative indicators of key variables that might turn out to be correlates of war, the project has completed and published an impressive variety of statistical analyses and interesting and promising hypotheses.[citation needed] The data has also been used extensively by researchers examining such relationships and seeking to explain when countries go to war or avoid it, when they trade, when they form alliances (and the effect of such alliances), and so on.

The current director is Zeev Maoz, a political scientist at University of California, Davis.

Categories of warsEdit

The Correlates of War web site provides separate data sets (in different formats) for four different categories of wars:[1]

  • Non-State Wars: Between or among non-state entities.
  • Intra-State Wars: Predominantly take place within the recognized territory of a state.
  • Inter-State Wars: Occur between or among recognized states.
  • Extra-State Wars: Between one or more states and a non-state entity outside the borders of the state.

The COW data includes a "WarType" variable assuming integer values 1-9. Interstate wars all have WarType 1. Extra-state wars are either "colonial" (WarType 2) to maintain control of a particular colony or "imperial" (WarType 3) to extend an empire. Intra-state wars are classified as either a civil war for central control (WarType 4), a civil war over local issues (WarType 5) a regional internal war (WarType 6), or an intercommunal war (WarType 7). Non-state wars are classified by whether they take place in non-state territory (WarType 8) or across state borders (WarType 9).[2]

In each of these cases, a "war must involve sustained combat, involving organized armed forces, resulting in a minimum of 1,000 battle-related combatant fatalities within a twelve month period."[3]


  1. ^ Sarkees, Meredith Reid; Wayman, Frank (2010). "The Correlates of War Project: COW War Data, 1816 - 2007 (v4.0)". Retrieved 2015-09-02.
  2. ^ For more, see the "Codebooks" associated with each Category of war
  3. ^ Sarkees, Meridith Reid (June 30, 2010), Non-state Wars (Version 4.0): Definitions and Variables, Correlates of War, retrieved 2016-02-12Sarkees, Meridith Reid (October 28, 2010), Codebook for the Intra-State Wars v.4.0. Definitions and Variables, Correlates of War, retrieved 2016-02-12Sarkees, Meridith Reid (March 1, 2011), Codebook for the Inter-State Wars v.4.0. Definitions and Variables, Correlates of War, retrieved 2016-02-12Sarkees, Meridith Reid (December 8, 2011), Codebook for the Extra-State Wars v.4.0. Definitions and Variables, Correlates of War, retrieved 2016-02-12

External linksEdit