Peltophorum pterocarpum

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Peltophorum pterocarpum (commonly known as copperpod, yellow-flamboyant, yellow flametree, yellow poinciana or yellow-flame)[2] is a species of Peltophorum, native to tropical southeastern Asia and a popular ornamental tree grown around the world.

Peltophorum pterocarpum
Starr 030514-0025 Peltophorum pterocarpum.jpg
Yellow flame flowers.jpg
Flowers with buds
Scientific classification
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P. pterocarpum
Binomial name
Peltophorum pterocarpum
Synonyms[1]
  • Baryxylum inerme (Roxb.) Pierre
  • Caesalpinia arborea Miq.
  • Caesalpinia ferruginea Decne.
  • Caesalpinia gleniei Thwaites
  • Caesalpinia inermis Roxb.
  • Inga pterocarpa DC.
  • Inga pterocarpum DC. [Spelling variant]
  • Peltophorum ferrugineum (Decne.) Benth.
  • Peltophorum inerme (Roxb.) Naves
  • Peltophorum roxburghii (G.Don) Degener
  • Poinciana roxburghii G.Don

DescriptionEdit

 
Depiction of browned Yellow flame tree leaves
 
Flower, buds, leaves, fruit and squirrel in Kolkata, India where it is known by the name radhachura in contrast with the reddish krishnachura or Delonix regia

It is a deciduous tree growing to 15–25 m (rarely up to 50 m) tall, with a trunk diameter of up to 1 m belonging to Family Leguminosae and sub-family Caesalpiniaceaea. The leaves are bipinnate, 30–60 cm long, with 16–20 pinnae, each pinna with 20–40 oval leaflets 8–25 mm long and 4–10 mm broad. The flowers are yellow, 2.5–4 cm diameter, produced in large compound raceme up to 20 cm long. Pollens are approximately 50 microns in size.

 
Pollens of Peltophorum pterocarpum
 
Pollens of Peltophorum pterocarpum
 
closeup view of Yellow flamboyant flowers.Note that here the raceme is defective and short

The fruit is a pod 5–10 cm long and 2.5 cm broad, red at first, ripening black, and containing one to four seeds. Trees begin to flower after about four years.[3][4]

 
budding leaves which are intensely brown at the beginning, but rapidly change colour during growth
 
flower buds

DistributionEdit

 
The Kalayaan Tree (Tree of Freedom or siar tree, Peltophorum pterocarpum, located near the front of the Malolos Cathedral).[5]

Peltophorum pterocarpum is native to tropical southeast Asia and northern Australasia, in: Australia (including islands off the Northern Territory coast),[2][3] Sri Lanka, Indonesia, Malaysia, Papua New Guinea, Philippines, Thailand and Vietnam (where it is called Lim xẹt). It is also found in India.[citation needed]

UsesEdit

The tree is widely grown in tropical regions as an ornamental tree, particularly in India, Nigeria, Pakistan, and Florida and Hawaii in the United States. Used as decorating flower in Telangana State's Batukamma festival. The trees have been planted alternately in India as a common scheme for avenue trees in India alternately with Delonix regia (Poinciana) to give a striking yellow and red effect in summer, as has been done on Hughes road in Mumbai.[6]

The wood has a wide variety of uses, including cabinet-making[7] and the foliage is used as a fodder crop.[3] The brownish colour called sogan typical of batik cloth from inland Java in Indonesia is produced from P. pterocarpum, which is known there as soga.[8]

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Peltophorum pterocarpum". International Legume Database & Information Service (ILDIS). Retrieved 30 Aug 2016 – via The Plant List.
  2. ^ a b "Peltophorum pterocarpum (DC.) K.Heyne". Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Agricultural Research Service (ARS), United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). Retrieved 30 Aug 2016.
  3. ^ a b c World AgroForestry Centre: Peltophorum pterocarpum
  4. ^ Huxley, A., ed. (1992). New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. Macmillan ISBN 0-333-47494-5.
  5. ^ "Beneath the Shade of the Kalayaan Tree". 1 May 2008.
  6. ^ Blatter, Ethelbert; Millard, Walter Samuel (1977) [1937]. Some beautiful Indian Trees (2 ed.). Mumbai: Bombay natural History Society. pp. 109–111.
  7. ^ McCann, Charles. (1966). 100 Beautiful Trees of India. (3/ed) Taraporevala, Mumbai. Pg 259.
  8. ^ Widianto, Eko (14 April 2014). "Malang Exhibits Royal Batik from Various Regions". Tempo. Retrieved 30 August 2016.