Conquest of Fadak

The Surrender of Fadak, also spelt Fidak,[1][2][3] or Fidk took place in May 628AD, 2nd month of 7AH of the Islamic calendar.[4][5]

The Prophet Mohammed had found out that the People of Fadak had collected in order to fight the Muslims alongside the Khaybar Jews. Therefore, he sent Ali to them.[6]

The people of Fadak surrendered without a fight, and pleaded for a peace treaty in exchange for giving away half their land and wealth to Mohammed.[7]

Fadak became Mohammad’s private property (a Fai), as there was no Muslim fighters involved in Fadak to share the booty with. Mohammed gave the wealth away to orphans and also used it to finance the marriage of needy young men.[8][9][10]

The Conquest of FadakEdit

During the time of negotiation with the Khaybar Jews, Muhammad sent Mahsia bin Masood, to send a message to the Jews of Fadak, asking them to surrender their properties and wealth(accepting his terms) or be attacked.[11]

When the people of Fadak had heard of what happened to the Khaybar Jews,[12] they were panic stricken. To spare their lives, they pleaded for a peace treaty, and in exchange requested Muhammad to take over one half of their wealth and property and banish them.[13][14]

After the Khaybar Jews surrendered to Muhammad and, having lost their only source of livelihood, they requested him to employ them back on their properties for half the share of the crop. Muhammad found it much more convenient to re-employ them, as the Jews were already very experienced with their land, whereas the Muslims (the new occupiers of their land) had no experience with agriculture and cultivation. So Muhammad made some conciliation to the Khaybar Jews by re-engaging them in their lost land, but on condition that he reserved the right to banish them any time he wished. The Jews had very little choice but to agree. The same terms were applied to the Fadak Jews.[15]

Fadak became Muhammad’s private property (a Fai), as there was no Muslim fighters involved in Fadak to share the booty with.[16] Mohammed gave the wealth away to orphans and financed the marriage of needy young men.[17]

The Quran verse 59:6 and 59:7 is also related to this event.[18][19]

Umar expels the InhabitantsEdit

Later, when Umar became the Caliph of Islam, he expelled all the Jews from Kahybar and Fadak. He sent Abul Haitham Malik ibn al Taiyihan to justly work out the value of the land they own (they owned half the land), and gave back half of the value of the soil. [20]

Islamic primary sourcesEdit

The Quran verse 59:6 and 59:7 is related to this event, it states the rules about Mohammeds private property (fai):[21][22]

What Allah has bestowed on His Messenger (and taken away) from them - for this ye made no expedition with either cavalry or camelry: but Allah gives power to His messengers over any He pleases: and Allah has power over all things. [Quran 59:6]

What Allah has bestowed on His Messenger (and taken away) from the people of the townships,- belongs to Allah,- to His Messenger and to kindred and orphans, the needy and the wayfarer; In order that it may not (merely) make a circuit between the wealthy among you. So take what the Messenger assigns to you, and deny yourselves that which he withholds from you. And fear Allah; for Allah is strict in Punishment.[Quran 59:7]

The famous Muslim scholar Ibn Kathir's commentary (tafsir) of the verse is as follows:

(What Allah gave as booty (Fai') to His Messenger from the people of the townships) meaning, from all the villages and areas that are conquered in this manner; the booty collected from them falls under the same ruling as the booty acquired from Bani An-Nadir. This is why Allah the Exalted said, (it is for Allah, His Messenger, the kindred, the orphans, the poor, and the wayfarer,) until its end and the following Ayah. mentioning the ways the Fai' should be spent. Imam Ahmad recorded that `Umar said, "The wealth of Bani An-Nadir was of the Fai' type that Allah awarded His Messenger and for which the Muslims did not have to use cavalry or camelry. Therefore, it was for the Messenger of Allah , and he used it for the needs of his family for a year at a time, and the rest was used to buy armors and weapons used in the cause of Allah the Exalted and Most Honored. Ahmad collected the short form of this story [Tafsir ibn Kathir 59:7][23]

The event is also mentioned in the Sunni Hadith collection, Sahih Muslim as follows:

One of the arguments put forward by Umar was that he said that the Apostle of Allah (peace_be_upon_him) received three things exclusively to himself: Banu an-Nadir, Khaybar and Fadak. The Banu an-Nadir property was kept wholly for his emergent needs, Fadak for travellers, and Khaybar was divided by the Apostle of Allah (peace_be_upon_him) into three sections: two for Muslims, and one as a contribution for his family. If anything remained after making the contribution of his family, he divided it among the poor Emigrants. Sahih Muslim, 19:2961

[24]

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ Gatje, Helmut (1996). The Qurʼān and its exegesis. Oneworld Publications. p. 81. ISBN 978-1-85168-118-1. Note: Writer says "like the Conquest of Khaibar and Fadak", so the writer acknowledges the name "Conquest of Fadak"
  2. ^ Bernards, Monique (15 Oct 2005). Patronate and patronage in early and classical Islam. Brill. p. 61. ISBN 978-90-04-14480-4. Note: see notes section where writer says "Kister (330) linked the conquest of Fadak to the decline in the power of the Jews", so writer acknowledges this event as the "Conquest of Fadak"
  3. ^ Abu Khalil, Shawqi (1 March 2004). Atlas of the Prophet's biography: places, nations, landmarks. Dar-us-Salam. p. 180. ISBN 978-9960-897-71-4.
  4. ^ Abu Khalil, Shawqi (1 March 2004). Atlas of the Prophet's biography: places, nations, landmarks. Dar-us-Salam. p. 180. ISBN 978-9960-897-71-4.
  5. ^ Hawarey, Dr. Mosab (2010). The Journey of Prophecy; Days of Peace and War (Arabic). Islamic Book Trust. Archived from the original on 2012-03-22. Retrieved 2011-06-14.Note: Book contains a list of battles of Muhammad in Arabic, English translation available here and archive of page
  6. ^ Kitab al-tabaqat al-kabir, by Ibn Sa’d, volume 2, page 110 – 111
  7. ^ "When The Moon Split". Retrieved 17 December 2014.
  8. ^ "Atlas Al-sīrah Al-Nabawīyah". Retrieved 17 December 2014.
  9. ^ "The Life of Muhammad". Retrieved 17 December 2014.
  10. ^ "The Origins of the Islamic State". Retrieved 17 December 2014.
  11. ^ "The Life of Muhammad". Retrieved 17 December 2014.
  12. ^ "Encyclopaedia Of Holy Prophet And Companion (Set Of 15 Vols.)". Retrieved 17 December 2014.
  13. ^ "The Life of Muhammad". Retrieved 17 December 2014.
  14. ^ "The Origins of the Islamic State". Retrieved 17 December 2014.
  15. ^ ""The rest of Khaibar also fell to the Muslims. Allâh cast fear into the hearts", Witness-Pioneer.com". Archived from the original on 2011-05-30. Retrieved 2011-04-10.
  16. ^ ""The rest of Khaibar also fell to the Muslims. Allâh cast fear into the hearts", Witness-Pioneer.com". Archived from the original on 2011-05-30. Retrieved 2011-04-10.
  17. ^ "Atlas Al-sīrah Al-Nabawīyah". Retrieved 17 December 2014.
  18. ^ "Fatima The Gracious". Al-Islam.org. Archived from the original on 7 May 2013. Retrieved 17 December 2014.
  19. ^ Tafsir ibn Abbas on Quran 59:6 Archived 2011-09-28 at the Wayback Machine
  20. ^ "The Origins of the Islamic State". Retrieved 17 December 2014.
  21. ^ "Fatima The Gracious". Al-Islam.org. Archived from the original on 7 May 2013. Retrieved 17 December 2014.
  22. ^ Tafsir ibn Abbas on Quran 59:6 Archived 2011-09-28 at the Wayback Machine
  23. ^ Tafsir ibn Kathir (abridged), Pg 554, By Ibn Kathir, Translation by Saifur Rahman al Mubarakpuri, also see Tafsir ibn Kathir 59:7, Text Version
  24. ^ Tafsir ibn Kathir (abridged), Pg 554, By Ibn Kathir, Translation by Saifur Rahman al Mubarakpuri also see Tafsir ibn Kathir 59:6