Conioscypha is a genus of terrestrial and freshwater fungi in the monotypic family Conioscyphaceae and the monotypic order Conioscyphales.[3] They are found on decayed wood, leaves, or bamboo stems.[4] Except for Conioscypha japonica which was isolated from dog skin fragments and hair in 2017.[5]

Scientific classification

Type species
Conioscypha lignicola [2]



Austrian mycologist and lichenologist Franz Xaver Rudolf von Höhnel (1852–1920) in 1904, created the genus Conioscypha with Conioscypha lignicola Höhn. as the generic type, which was found on submerged wood of Carpinus sp. in Austria.[1]

Then in 1973, American mycologist Carol A.Shearer reviewed and re-described Conioscypha lignicola based on type specimens together with a new of species Conioscypha varia Shearer which was found on 2 balsa wood blocks submerged in the Patuxent River, Maryland, USA.[6]

Later, nine more Conioscypha species were recognized: Conioscypha bambusicola Matsush. (Matsushima 1975),[7][8] Conioscypha japonica Udagawa & Toyaz. (Udagawa and Toyazaki 1983),[9] Conioscypha hoehnelii P.M. Kirk (Kirk 1984),[10] Conioscypha fabiformis Matsush. (Matsushima 1993),[11] Conioscypha dimorpha Matsush. (Matsushima 1996),[12] Conioscypha taiwaniana J.L. Chen & Tzean (Chen and Tzean 2000),[13] Conioscypha minutispora Hern.-Restr., Gené & Guarro (Crous et al. 2014), while Zelski et al. (2015) described Conioscypha peruensis Zelski, Raja, A.N. Mill. & Shearer,[14] and Conioscypha gracilis (Munk) Zelski, Raja, A.N. Mill. & Shearer,[14] with their sexual morphs. Most of the previously described species of Conioscypha were described and reported from decaying plant materials (i.e., dead wood, bamboo and leaves) derived from terrestrial and aquatic habitats.[4] Conioscypha japonica was isolated from skin scrapings and hair of a male dog (Udagawa and Toyazaki 1983).[9][5]

In 2004, the genus Conioscyphascus was introduced based on Conioscyphascus varius Réblová & Seifert, it was named as the sexual morph of Conioscypha varia (Réblová and Seifert 2004).[4][5]

The Conioscypha clade, based on molecular data, was considered as Ascomycota incertae sedis with genera Conioscypha and Conioscyphascus considered congeneric (Réblová and Seifert, 2004,[4] Zelski et al., 2015[14]) with Conioscypha accepted as the recommend name under the one name protocol (Réblová et al. 2016a).[15] According to recent changes in the ICN (McNeill et al. 2012), specifically the new article 59.1, as of January 2013,[16]

Then in a phylogenetic study of the Hypocreomycetidae, Sordariomycetes, Conioscyphales was then proposed as a new order and it was closely related to the Savoryellales order (Boonyuen et al., 2011,[17] Réblová et al., 2012,[18] Réblová et al., 2016b).[19]

Based on in vitro experiments and molecular DNA data, Réblová & Seifert (2004a) introduced Conioscyphascus, typified by Ca. varius, to accommodate holomorphs with Conioscypha asexual morphs.[4] Another sexual-asexual relationship was established for C. peruviana (Zelski et al. 2015).[14] Following the abolishment of dual nomenclature and adoption of one fungus, one name, Conioscyphascus was accepted as a synonym of Conioscypha (Zelski et al. 2015,[14] Réblová et al. 2016c).[20] Although C. gracilis is the only species of the genus known in its sexual state, the presence of typical conidia on the host near ascomata was repeatedly observed (Réblová & Seifert 2004a, Zelski et al. 2015). Conioscypha varia Shearer is illustrated for the sexual morph and C. tenebrosa is illustrated for the asexual morph, in this entry.[2]



The fungal genus is characterized dematiaceous (black yeast), unicellular, thick-walled, globose to subglobose shaped conidia produced from discrete, hyaline (transparent), 'cup-shaped' conidiogenous cells which proliferate per currently, and are lacking conidiophores (conidia, which are borne on specialized stalks).[21]

They have an unusual mode of conidiogenesis which includes aspects of both phialidic (A type of conidiogenous cell, bottle-shaped, that produces blastic conidia (phialospores) in basipetal succession) and annellidic (the conidiogenous cell (also called an annellide) produces a basipetal sequence of conidia called annelloconidia or annellospores) ontogeny (Shearer 1973,[6] Shearer & Motta 1973,[22] Cole & Samson 1979,[23]).[4]

Conioscypha is characterized by a unique mode of conidiogenesis with blastic conidia produced at inconspicuous loci along the hyphae (Shearer 1973).[6] Traditionally, the conidia were thought to be produced from 'phialidic' conidiogenous cells (Goh & Hyde 1998).[21] Shearer & Motta (1973)[22] described Conioscypha conidiogenesis to be both 'phialidic' and 'annelidic' (Shearer & Motta 1973),[22] but Minter et al. (1983) did not agree with this observation.[24] Cole & Samson (1979) reported conidial development to be intermediate between the 'phialidic' and 'annelidic' process and after repetitive basipetal conidial secession, the remains of the outer wall of conidia collect centripetally on the conidiogenous cells to form 'collarettes'.[23]

Conidiogenesis occurs at inconspicuous loci along hyphae; a basipetal (chain of conidia in which new spores are formed at the base) succession of blastically produced conidia leave behind conspicuous collarettes that are remnants of the initial outer wall of the conidia; these accumulate centripetally to form a multi-layered collarette appearing similar to annellations (Goh & Hyde 1998).[4]

Distribution and habitats


It has a cosmopolitan distribution, worldwide.[25] Including places such as Peru,[14] America (including Chesapeake Bay,[6]) the British Isles,[10][26] Spain,[27] China,[28][29] Japan,[30] Thailand,[5][29] and Taiwan.[13]

Such as; Conioscypha hoehnelii was found on bark of Eucalyptus sp. as well as the wood, and leaves of Phormium tenax J. R. & G. Forst (Agavaceae) collected in the British Isles.[10] Also Conioscypha peruviana was isolated from submerged woody debris collected in streams, rivers and a swamp in Peru.[14] Conioscypha varia has been found in indoor environments,[31] while Conioscypha minutispora has been found on dead wood in Spain.[27] Conioscypha pleiomorpha, is commonly found in association with decaying wood substrates, and might preferentially degrade lignin-enriched organic material.[5]



There was 16 morphological species (described by Liu et al. 2019b) in 2019.[28] Then 18 species, as accepted by Species Fungorum;[32]

Former species;

  • C. gracilis (Munk) Réblová & Seifert (2004) = Conioscypha gracilis, Conioscyphaceae
  • C. varius Réblová & Seifert (2004) = Conioscypha varia, Conioscyphaceae


  1. ^ a b Höhn.,Mycologische Fragmente. Ann. Mycol. 2 (1): 58 (1904)
  2. ^ a b Chethana, Thilini (24 October 2022). "Conioscypha - Facesoffungi number: FoF 05191". Faces Of Fungi. Retrieved 2 May 2023.
  3. ^ Wijayawardene, N.N.; Hyde, K.D.; Dai, D.Q.; Sánchez-García, M.; Goto, B.T.; Saxena, R.K.; et al. (2022). "Outline of Fungi and fungus-like taxa – 2021". Mycosphere. 13 (1): 53–453 [160]. doi:10.5943/mycosphere/13/1/2. hdl:10481/76378. S2CID 249054641.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g Réblová, Martina; Seifert, Keith A. (January 2004). "Conioscyphascus, a new ascomycetous genus for holomorphs with Conioscypha anamorphs". Studies in Mycology. 50 (1): 95–108.
  5. ^ a b c d e f g Chuaseeharonnachai, Charuwan; Somrithipol, Sayanh; Suetrong, Satinee; Klaysuban, Anupong; Pornputtapong, Natapol; Gareth Jones, E.B.; Boonyuen, Nattawut (November 2017). "Conioscypha nakagirii, a new species from naturally submerged wood in Thailand based on morphological and molecular data". Mycoscience. 58 (6): 424–431. doi:10.1016/j.myc.2017.06.003.
  6. ^ a b c d e Shearer, Carol A. (January–February 1973). "Fungi of the Chesapeake Bay and Its Tributaries II. The Genus Conioscypha". Mycologia. 65 (1). Taylor & Francis, Ltd.: 128–136. doi:10.2307/3757793. JSTOR 3757793.
  7. ^ Matsushima, T. (1975). Icones Microfungorum a Matsushima Lectorum. Kobe, Japan.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: location missing publisher (link)
  8. ^ "Anamorphic fungi >> Anamorphic fungi >> Anamorphic fungi >> Conioscypha bambusicola". Retrieved 5 May 2023.
  9. ^ a b Udagawa, S.I.; Toyazaki, N. (1983). "A new species of Conioscypha". Mycotaxon. 18: 131–137.
  10. ^ a b c d Kirk, P.M. (1984). "New or interesting microfungi XII. A new species of Conioscypha (Hyphomycetes)". Transactions of the British Mycological Society. 82: 177–178. doi:10.1016/S0007-1536(84)80230-2.
  11. ^ Matsushima, T. (1993). Matsushima Mycological Memoirs 7. pp. 1–75.
  12. ^ Matsushima, T.; Matsushima, K. (1996). Matsushima Mycological Memoirs 9. pp. 1–30.
  13. ^ a b c Chen, J.L.; Tzean, S.S. (2000). "Conioscypha taiwania sp. nov. and several new records of the genus from Taiwan". Botanical Bulletin of Academia Sinica. 41: 315–322.
  14. ^ a b c d e f g h Zelski, Steven E.; Raja, Huzefa A.; Miller, Andrew N.; Shearer, Carol A. (May 2015). "Conioscypha peruviana sp. nov., its phylogenetic placement based on 28S rRNA gene, and a report of Conioscypha gracilis comb. nov. from Peru". Mycoscience. 56 (3): 319–325. doi:10.1016/j.myc.2014.09.002.
  15. ^ Réblová, Martina; Fournier, Jacques; Štěpánek, Václav (March 2016). "Two new lineages of aquatic ascomycetes: Atractospora gen. nov. and Rubellisphaeria gen. et sp. nov., and a sexual morph of Myrmecridium montsegurinum sp. nov". Mycological Progress. 15 (3). doi:10.1007/s11557-016-1166-z. S2CID 255304596.
  16. ^ McNeill, J.; Barrie, F.R.; Buck, W.R.; Demoulin, V.; Greuter, W.; Hawksworth, D.L.; Herendeen, P.S.; Knapp, S.; Marhold, K.; Prado, J.; Prud'homme Van Reine, W.F.; Smith, G.F.; Wiersema, J.H.; Turland, N.J., eds. (2012). International code of nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants (Melbourne Code) July 2011. Königstein, Germany: Koeltz Scientific Books. ISBN 978-3-87429-425-6.
  17. ^ Boonyuen, Nattawut; Charuwan, Chuaseeharonnachai; Suetrong, Satinee; Sri-indrasutdhi, Veera; Sivichai, Somsak; Gareth Jones, E.B.; Pang, Ka-Lai (2011). "Savoryellales (Hypocreomycetidae, Sordariomycetes): a novel lineage of aquatic ascomycetes inferred from multiple-gene phylogenies of the genera Ascotaiwania, Ascothailandia, and Savoryella". Mycologia. 103 (6): 1351–1371. doi:10.3852/11-102. PMID 21642338. S2CID 207626885.
  18. ^ Réblová, M.; Seifert, K. A.; Fournier, J.; Štěpánek, V. (2012). "Phylogenetic classification of Pleurothecium and Pleurotheciella gen. nov. and its dactylaria-like anamorph (Sordariomycetes) based on nuclear ribosomal and protein-coding genes". Mycologia. 104 (6): 1299–1314. doi:10.3852/12-035. PMID 22684295. S2CID 21460176.
  19. ^ Réblová, M.; Seifert, K. A.; Fournier, J.; Štěpánek, V. (2016). "Newly recognized lineages of perithecial ascomycetes: the new orders Conioscyphales and Pleurotheciales". Persoonia. 37: 57–81. doi:10.3767/003158516X689819. PMC 5315292. PMID 28232761.
  20. ^ Réblová, M.; Miller, A.N.; Rossman, A.Y.; Seifert, K.A.; Crous, P.W.; Hawksworth, D.L.; Abdel-Wahab, M.A.; Cannon, P.F.; Daranagama, D.A.; De Beer, Z.W.; Huang, SK; Hyde, Kevin D.; Jayawardena, R.; Jaklitsch, W.; Jones, EBG; Ju, Y.M.; Judith, C.; Maharachchikumbura, S.S.N.; Pang, K.L.; Petrini, L.E.; Raja, H.A.; Romero, A.I.; Shearer, C.A.; Senanayake, I.C.; Voglmayr, H.; Weir, B.S.; Wijayawarden, N.N. (2016). "Recommendations for competing sexual-asexually typified generic names in Sordariomycetes (except Diaporthales, Hypocreales, and Magnaporthales)". IMA Fungus. 7 (1): 131–153. doi:10.5598/imafungus.2016.07.01.08. PMC 4941682. PMID 27433444.
  21. ^ a b Goh, T.K.; Hyde, Kevin D. (1998). "A new hyphomycete genus, Conioscyphopsis, from wood submerged in a freshwater stream and a review of Conioscypha". Mycological Research. 102 (3): 308–312. doi:10.1017/S0953756297004942.
  22. ^ a b c Shearer, C.A.; Motta, J.J. (1973). "Ultrastructure and conidio-genesis in Conioscypha (Hyphomycetes)". Canadian Journal of Botany. 51 (10): 1747–1751. doi:10.1139/b73-226.
  23. ^ a b Cole, G.T.; Samson, R.A. (1979). Patterns of development in conidial fungi. London, U.K.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: location missing publisher (link)
  24. ^ Minter, D.W.; Sutton, B.C.; Brady, B.L. (1983). "What are phialides anyway?". Transactions of the British Mycological Society. 81: 109–120. doi:10.1016/S0007-1536(83)80210-1.
  25. ^ "Conioscypha Höhn., 1904". Retrieved 26 April 2023.
  26. ^ Parker-Rhodes, A.F. (December 1954). "The basidiomycetes of Skokholm Island: I. Annotated species list". Transactions of the British Mycological Society. 37 (4): 324–339. doi:10.1016/S0007-1536(54)80015-5.
  27. ^ a b Crous, Pedro W.; Shivas, Roger; Quaedvlieg, William; der Bank, Michelle van; Zhang, Ying; Summerell, Brett; Guarro, Josep; Wingfield, M. J.; Wood, Alan R.; Alfenas, Acelino Couto; Braun, Uwe; Cano, Jose; García, Dania; Marin, Yasmina; Alvarado, Pablo; Andrade, Jackeline Pereira; Armengol, Josep; Assefa, Addisu; Breeyen, Alana Den; Camele, Ippolito; Cheewangkoon, Ratchadawan; De Souza, Jorge; Duong, Tuan A.; Esteve-Raventós, F.; Fournier, Jacques; Frisullo, S.; García-Jiménez, J.; Gardiennet, Alain; Gené, Josepa; Hernández-Restrepo, Margarita; Hirooka, Yuuri; Hospenthal, Duane R.; King, A.; Lechat, C.; Lombard, Lorenzo; Mang, Stefania; Santos Marbach, Phellippe Arthur; Marincowitz, Seonju; Mata, Nelson Montaño; Moreno, Gabriel; Pérez, Carlos A.; Pérez-Sierra, A.; Robertson, J. L.; Roux, Jolanda; Rubio, E.; Schumacher, R. K.; Stchigel, Alberto Miguel; Sutton, Deanna; Tan, Yu Pei; Thompson, E. H.; van der Linde, Elna; Walker, Allison; Walker, Donald; Wickes, B. L.; Wong, Percy T. W.; Groenewald, J.Z. (June 2014). "Fungal Planet Description Sheets: 214–280". Persoonia - Molecular Phylogeny and Evolution of Fungi. 32 (1): 184–306. doi:10.3767/003158514X682395. PMC 4150077. PMID 25264390.
  28. ^ a b Liu, N.G.; Bhat, D.J.; Hyde, Kevin D.; Liu, J.K. (2019). "Conioscypha tenebrosa sp. nov. (Conioscyphaceae) from China and notes on Conioscypha species". Phytotaxa. 413 (2): 159–171. doi:10.11646/phytotaxa.413.2.5. S2CID 201209955.
  29. ^ a b Yang, Jing; Liu, Lingling; Gareth Jones, E. B.; Hyde, Kevin D. (March 2023). "Freshwater fungi from karst landscapes in China and Thailand". Fungal Diversity. 119 (1): 1–212. doi:10.1007/s13225-023-00514-7. S2CID 257697916.
  30. ^ Hakkō Kenkyūjo (Osaka, Japan) List of Cultures, Volume 11 (2000), p. 792, at Google Books
  31. ^ Li, De-Wei; Yang, Chin S.; Jalsrai, Ariunaa (October–December 2017). "Bactrodesmiastrum domesticum sp. nov. and Conioscypha varia from indoor environments". Mycotaxon. 132 (4): 779–787. doi:10.5248/132.779.
  32. ^ "Conioscypha - Search Page". Species Fungorum. Retrieved 23 April 2023.