Open main menu

In physics, coherence length is the propagation distance over which a coherent wave (e.g. an electromagnetic wave) maintains a specified degree of coherence. Wave interference is strong when the paths taken by all of the interfering waves differ by less than the coherence length. A wave with a longer coherence length is closer to a perfect sinusoidal wave. Coherence length is important in holography and telecommunications engineering.

This article focuses on the coherence of classical electromagnetic fields. In quantum mechanics, there is a mathematically analogous concept of the quantum coherence length of a wave function.

FormulasEdit

In radio-band systems, the coherence length is approximated by

 

where   is the speed of light in a vacuum,   is the refractive index of the medium, and   is the bandwidth of the source or   is the signal wavelength and   is the width of the range of wavelengths in the signal.

In optical communications, assuming that the source has a Gaussian emission spectrum, the coherence length   is given by [1]

 

where   is the central wavelength of the source,   is the refractive index of the medium, and   is the (FWHM) spectral width of the source. If the source has a Gaussian spectrum with FWHM spectral width  , then a path offset of ±  will reduce the fringe visibility to 50%.

Coherence length is usually applied to the optical regime.

The expression above is a frequently used approximation. Due to ambiguities in the definition of spectral width of a source, however, the following definition of coherence length has been suggested:

The coherence length can be measured using a Michelson interferometer and is the optical path length difference of a self-interfering laser beam which corresponds to a   fringe visibility,[2] where the fringe visibility is defined as

 

where   is the fringe intensity.

In long-distance transmission systems, the coherence length may be reduced by propagation factors such as dispersion, scattering, and diffraction.

LasersEdit

Multimode helium–neon lasers have a typical coherence length of 20 cm, while the coherence length of single-mode lasers can exceed 100 m. Semiconductor lasers reach some 100 m, but small, inexpensive semiconductor lasers have shorter lengths, with one source[3] claiming 20 cm. Singlemode fiber lasers with linewidths of a few kHz can have coherence lengths exceeding 100 km. Similar coherence lengths can be reached with optical frequency combs due to the narrow linewidth of each tooth. Non-zero visibility is present only for short intervals of pulses repeated after cavity length distances up to this long coherence length.

Other light sourcesEdit

The coherence length of a mercury-vapor lamp is 0.03 cm.[4]

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Akcay, C.; Parrein, P.; Rolland, J.P. (2002). "Estimation of longitudinal resolution in optical coherence imaging". Applied Optics. 41 (25): 5256–5262. doi:10.1364/ao.41.005256. equation 9
  2. ^ Ackermann, Gerhard K. (2007). Holography: A Practical Approach. Wiley-VCH. ISBN 3-527-40663-8.
  3. ^ "Sam's Laser FAQ - Diode Lasers". www.repairfaq.org. Retrieved 2017-02-06.
  4. ^ Hecht, Eugene (2002). Optics (4th ed.). San Francisco ; Montreal: Pearson/Addison-Wesley. ISBN 978-0805385663.