French Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars

  (Redirected from Coalition Wars)

The French Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars,[5] sometimes called the Coalition Wars, were a series of seven wars waged by various military alliances of great European powers, known as Coalitions, against Revolutionary France between 1792 and 1815, first against the newly declared French Republic and from 1799 onwards against First Consul and later Emperor Napoleon Bonaparte.[6][7] The term encompasses both the French Revolutionary Wars and the Napoleonic Wars, though, strictly speaking, it excludes conflicts like the French invasion of Switzerland that did not pit France against a coalition of powers.

French Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars
French Empire on World 1812.png
The French Empire in 1812:
 French Empire and colonies
 Client states and occupied territories
Date20 April 1792 — 20 November 1815
(23 years and 7 months)
Location
Europe
Result Coalition victory
Belligerents
French First Republic French First Republic (1792–1804)
First French Empire First French Empire (1804–15)
French client states
Main European powers
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland Great Britain[a]
 Holy Roman Empire (pre-1806)
 Austrian Empire (from 1804)
 Kingdom of Prussia
 Russian Empire
Casualties and losses
French:
1,000,000 dead, wounded, missing, captured, or deserted (1792–1801)[1]
306,000 killed (1805–15)[2]
Austrian:
514,700 killed, wounded, or captured (1792–97)[3]
440,000 killed, wounded, or captured (1799–1801)[1]
396,000 killed in action (1805–15)[4]
Prussians:
154,000 killed in action[4]
Russians:
299,000 killed in action[4]
War of the Fourth Coalition:
700,000 deaths[4]
War of the Fifth Coalition:
300,000 deaths[4]
Peninsular War:
2,400,000 deaths[4]
War of the Sixth Coalition:
450,000 deaths[4]
War of the Seventh Coalition:
60,000 deaths[4]
Key:-
1
First Coalition: France 1792:...Toulon...
2
Second Coalition: Egypt 1798:...Pyramids...
3
Second Coalition: Italy 1799:...Marengo...
4
Third Coalition: Germany 1803:...Austerlitz...
5
Fourth Coalition: Prussia 1806:...Jena...
6
Fifth Coalition: Austria 1809:...Wagram...
7
Sixth Coalition: Germany 1813:...Leipzig...
8
Sixth Coalition: France 1814:...Paris...
9
Seventh Coalition: Belgium 1815:...Waterloo...

The Coalition Wars were:

TerminologyEdit

EtymologyEdit

One of the first usages of the term can be found in the 1803 Tribunat report, titled Résultats des guerres, des négociations et des traités qui ont préced́é et suivi la coalition contre la France ("Results of the Wars, Negotiations and Treaties that preceded and followed the Coalition against France"). About the situation in April 1793, when General Dumouriez had just been defeated at Neerwinden and defected to Austria, causing despair in France, it states: "Les événements de cette époque sont les plus pénibles à décrire de tous ceux qui ont signalé les guerres de la coalition." ("The events of that time are the most painful to describe of all those that marked the wars of the coalition.")[8]

In January 1805, the Salzburger Intelligenzblatt was one of the first to number the Coalition Wars when it discussed "Das Staatsinteresse von Baiern bei dem dritten Koalitions-Kriege" ("The national interest of Bavaria in the Third Coalition War").[9] Although the Third Coalition had been formed by that time, war had not yet broken out;[b] the Austrian newspaper discussed why the neighbouring Electorate of Bavaria was likely to side with the French Republic rather than the Austrian-led Coalition. On 30 September 1805, a few days after the launch of the Ulm Campaign, Emperor Napoleon addressed his troops in Strasbourg, starting his speech with the words: "Soldats, la guerre de la troisième coalition est commencée." ("Soldiers, the war of the third coalition has begun.")[10]

Compared to other termsEdit

The term is distinct from "French Revolutionary Wars", which covers any war involving Revolutionary France between 1792 and 1799, when Napoleon seized power with the Coup of 18 Brumaire (9 November 1799), which is usually considered the end of the French Revolution. Since the War of the Second Coalition (1798–1802) had already begun when Napoleon seized power, the war as a whole may[7] or may not be counted amongst the French Revolutionary Wars, which therefore may end in 1799, 1801 (Treaty of Lunéville) or 1802 (Treaty of Amiens).

It also differs from "Napoleonic Wars", which is variously defined as covering any war involving France ruled by Napoleon between 1799 and 1815 (which includes the War of the Second Coalition, 1798–1802), or not commencing until the War of the Third Coalition (1803/05, depending on periodisation). In the latter case, historians do not term the War of the Second Coalition "Napoleonic", since Napoleon did not initiate it himself, but merely "inherited" it from the Revolutionary French Directory which he overthrew during the war.

Because it only pertains to wars involving any of the Coalition parties, not all wars counted amongst the French Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars are considered "Coalition Wars". For example, the French invasion of Switzerland (1798, between the First and Second Coalition), the Stecklikrieg (1802, between the Second and Third Coalition) and the French invasion of Russia (1812, between the Fifth and Sixth Coalition) were not "Coalition Wars", since France fought against a single opponent.

Hundred DaysWar of the Sixth CoalitionWar of the Fifth CoalitionWar of the Fourth CoalitionWar of the Third CoalitionWar of the Second CoalitionWar of the First CoalitionCongress of ViennaTreaty of SchönbrunnContinental SystemConcordat of 1801Treaty of Campo FormioExecution of Louis XVIBourbon RestorationTreaties of TilsitCoronation of Napoleon ITreaty of AmiensTreaty of LunévilleFrench ConsulateProclamation of the abolition of the monarchyMinor campaigns of 1815Minor campaigns of 1815Gunboat WarTrafalgar CampaignTrafalgar CampaignHaitian RevolutionPeninsular WarAnglo-Spanish War (1796–1808)Anglo-Spanish War (1796–1808)War of the PyreneesNeapolitan WarNeapolitan WarDalmatian Campaign (1809)Adriatic campaign of 1807–14Invasion of Portugal (1807)Invasion of Portugal (1807)Invasion of Naples (1806)Invasion of Naples (1806)StecklikriegItalian campaigns of the French Revolutionary WarsItalian campaigns of the French Revolutionary WarsFrench invasion of SwitzerlandFrench invasion of SwitzerlandItalian campaigns of the French Revolutionary WarsItalian campaigns of the French Revolutionary WarsWaterloo CampaignWaterloo CampaignGerman Campaign of 1813German Campaign of 1813Walcheren CampaignBattle of WagramWar of the Fourth Coalition#Prussian campaignWar of the Fourth Coalition#Prussian campaignUlm CampaignUlm CampaignFrench campaign in Egypt and SyriaFrench campaign in Egypt and SyriaExpedition d'IrlandeExpedition d'IrlandeWar in the VendéeWar in the VendéeCampaign in north-east France (1814)Campaign in north-east France (1814)French invasion of RussiaFrench invasion of RussiaFinnish WarFranco-Swedish WarWar of the OrangesWar of the OrangesAnglo-Russian invasion of HollandAnglo-Russian invasion of HollandMediterranean campaign of 1798Mediterranean campaign of 1798Flanders CampaignFlanders CampaignNapoleonic WarsFrench Revolutionary Wars
  •   Phase
  •   French victory
  •   Anti-French victory
  •   Indecisive/compromise
  •   Coalition


Coalition partiesEdit

The main European powers who forged the various anti-French Coalitions were Great Britain, Russia, Austria and Prussia, although except for Great Britain not all of them were involved in every Coalition. Smaller powers that occasionally joined the Coalitions include Spain, Naples, Piedmont–Sardinia, the Dutch Republic, the Ottoman Empire, Portugal, Sweden, Denmark–Norway and various German and Italian states. The First until Fifth Coalitions fell apart when one or more parties were defeated by France and were forced to leave the alliance, and sometimes became French allies; the Sixth and Seventh were dissolved after Napoleon was defeated in 1814 and 1815 and a new balance of power was established between the parties at the Congress of Vienna.

Members of each Coalition
Members First
(1792–1797)
Second
(1798–1802)
Third
(1803–1806)
Fourth
(1806–1807)
Fifth
(1809)
Sixth
(1812–1814)
Seventh
(1815)
  Great Britain[a] Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
  Holy Roman Empire (to 1806) Yes Yes Yes
(until Dec 1805)
 
  Baden (from 1806)[c]   Yes
(from Oct 1813)
 
  Bavaria (from 1806)[c]   Yes
(from Oct 1813)
Yes
  Nassau (from 1806)[c]   Yes
  Saxony (from 1806)[c] Yes
(until Dec 1806)
  Yes
(from Oct 1813)
 
  Württemberg (from 1806)[c]   Yes
(from Oct 1813)
 
  Black Brunswickers (from 1809)[c] Yes Yes Yes
  Hanover (from 1814)[c] Yes
  Austrian Empire (from 1804) Yes
(1805)
  Yes Yes Yes
  Prussia Yes
(until 1795)
  Yes   Yes Yes
  Sardinia Yes
(until 1796)
  Yes
  Portugal Yes Yes
(until 1801)
  Yes Yes Yes
  Spain Yes
(until 1795)
  Yes Yes Yes
  Ottoman Empire   Yes
(until 1801)
 
  Russia   Yes
(until 1799)
Yes
(1805)
Yes   Yes Yes
  Tuscany (to 1801 and from 1815)   Yes
(until 1801)
  Yes
  Malta   Yes
(1798–1800)
 
  Order of St. John of Malta   Yes
(1798)
 
  Naples Yes Yes
(until 1801)
Yes
(from 1805)
 
  Sicily   Yes
(from 1806)
Yes Yes Yes Yes
  Netherlands[d] Yes
(until 1795)
  Yes Yes
  Sweden   Yes
(from 1805)
Yes   Yes Yes
   Switzerland   Yes
 
Map of European belligerents, August 1813
  French Empire and allies
  Sixth Coalition and allies

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ a b   Kingdom of Great Britain (to 1801),   United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland (from 1801)
  2. ^ Great Britain had already declared war on France in 1803, but it had been fighting France on its own while forming the Third Coalition, whose other members (Austria, Russia, Sweden, Naples and Sicily) would not join the war against France until September 1805.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g Part of the Holy Roman Empire (to 1806), then Confederation of the Rhine (1806–1813), then German Confederation (1815–66) member
  4. ^     Dutch Republic (to 1795)   Principality of the United Netherlands (1813–1815)   United Kingdom of the Netherlands (from 1815)

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b Clodfelter 2017, pp. 109.
  2. ^ Clodfelter 2017, pp. 171.
  3. ^ Clodfelter 2017, pp. 100.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h Clodfelter 2017, pp. 170.
  5. ^ Forrest, Alan (2004). "The French Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars". Early Modern Military History, 1450–1815. Palgrave Macmillan UK. pp. 196–211. ISBN 978-1-4039-0697-7.
  6. ^ Grab, Alexander (2003). Napoleon and the Transformation of Europe. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 1. ISBN 9781403937575. Retrieved 27 May 2016.
  7. ^ a b (in Dutch) Encarta-encyclopedie Winkler Prins (1993–2002) s.v. "coalitieoorlogen". Microsoft Corporation/Het Spectrum.
  8. ^ Arnould (1803). Résultats des guerres, des négociations et des traités qui ont préced́é et suivi la coalition contre la France (in French). Paris: Badouin. Retrieved 27 May 2016.
  9. ^ "Intelligenzblatt von Salzburg: 1805". Salzburger Intelligenzblatt (in German). Verlag des Zeitungs-Comtoirs. 11 (1): 143–4. January 1805. Retrieved 27 May 2016.
  10. ^ Guizot, François (2015). L'histoire de France depuis 1789 jusqu'en 1848 racontée à mes petits-enfants (in French). Primento. p. 491. ISBN 9782335028768. Retrieved 27 May 2016.

BibliographyEdit

  • Clodfelter, M. (2017). Warfare and Armed Conflicts: A Statistical Encyclopedia of Casualty and Other Figures, 1492-2015 (4th ed.). Jefferson, North Carolina: McFarland. ISBN 978-0786474707.
  • Hattendorf, John B. (1995). "4. The Struggle with France, 1690–1815". In Hill, J. R. (ed.). The Oxford Illustrated History of the Royal Navy. New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 108–119. ISBN 978-0192116758.