The Clark Amendment was an amendment to the U.S. Arms Export Control Act of 1976, named for its sponsor, Senator Dick Clark (D-Iowa). The amendment barred aid to private groups engaged in military or paramilitary operations in Angola.

Even after the Clark amendment became law, however, then-Director of Central Intelligence, George H. W. Bush, refused to concede that all U.S. aid to Angola had ceased.[1][2] According to foreign affairs analyst Jane Hunter, Israel stepped in as a proxy arms supplier for the United States after the Clark Amendment took effect.

The Clark Amendment was repealed by the U.S. Congress in July 1985.

Visiting The Heritage Foundation on October 5, 1989, the ultimate beneficiary of the Clark Amendment's repeal, Jonas Savimbi's UNITA, praised the Heritage Foundation for its critical role in advocating the repeal of the amendment. "When we come to the Heritage Foundation," Savimbi said, "It is like coming back home. We know that our success here in Washington in repealing the Clark Amendment and obtaining American assistance for our cause is very much associated with your efforts. This foundation has been a source of great support. The UNITA leadership knows this, and it is also known in Angola."[3]

See alsoEdit


  1. ^ Koh, Harold Hongju (1990). The National Security Constitution: Sharing Power After the Iran-Contra Affair. Yale University Press. ISBN.p. 52
  2. ^ Fausold, Martin L.; Alan Shank (1991). The Constitution and the American Presidency. SUNY Press. ISBN. Pages 186-187.
  3. ^ ""The Coming Winds of Democracy in Angola," by Jonas Savimbi, Heritage Foundation Lecture #217, Washington, D.C., October 5, 1989". Archived from the original on January 1, 2008. Retrieved December 27, 2007.