Christopher Columbus (1949 film)

Christopher Columbus is a 1949 British biographical film starring Fredric March as Christopher Columbus and Florence Eldridge as Queen Isabella. It is loosely based on the novel Columbus by Rafael Sabatini with much of the screenplay rewritten by Sydney and Muriel Box.[5]

Christopher Columbus
Christopher Columbus FilmPoster.jpeg
Directed byDavid MacDonald
Produced bySydney Box
A. Frank Bundy
Written byMuriel Box
Sydney Box
Cyril Roberts
Based onColumbus
1941 novel
by Rafael Sabatini
StarringFredric March
Florence Eldridge
Francis L. Sullivan
Kathleen Ryan
Narrated byValentine Dyall
Music byArthur Bliss
CinematographyStephen Dade
Edited byVladimir Sagovsky
Production
company
Distributed byGFD (UK)
Universal-International Pictures (US)
Gaumont (France)
Release date
12 October 1949
Running time
104 minutes[1]
CountryUnited Kingdom
LanguageEnglish
Budget₤200,000[2] or £500,000[3][4]
Box office£121,000 (by 1953)[3]

PlotEdit

Christopher Columbus, an explorer from Genoa, Italy, arrives in Spain with his son seeking funds for a trip to India. He obtains an introduction at court from Father Perez, the former confessor for Queens Isabella.

Columbus is opposed b Francisco de Bobadilla, who uses Beatriz to distract Columbus, However eventually the Queen agrees to finance Columbus's ships, the Nina, the Pinta and the Santa Maria, on its journey.

On the trip over, the crew threaten mutiny. Columbus promises to turn back if no land is found in three days. On the third night, Columbus sees a light and they reach the New World.

Columbus returns to Spain a hero but continues to face opposition at court, even has his discoveries help turn Spain into a rich country.

CastEdit

DevelopmentEdit

The film was a passion project for producer Sydney Box who in 1945 had a huge success with The Seventh Veil. In September 1946 Box announced he would make the film from Sabatini's novel for the United Kingdom Moving Picture Company.[6] Finance would come from the Rank Organisation. The film was part of a deliberate attempt by Rank to break into the American market, following the path blazed with films like Henry V (1944) and Caesar and Cleopatra (1945). John Woolf, head of international distribution for Rank, said in October 1946 that:

Before we smacked Henry V and Caesar and Cleopatra into the American Markets, we were getting a poor showing in the United States. Although the most optimistic figures have been put out in London about the achievements of Henry and Caesar, in fact they have had to fight hard to make their way. The important thing to remember is this— that these big films enabled us to break through the highly controlled theatre circuits in America. We are using them as a spearhead to get a showing of British films.[7]

For a time it seemed there would be a rival movie on the same subject produced by Edward Small from a biography by David Lawrence.[8] This film was not made.

When Box became head of Gainsborough Pictures he immediately put the project in development at that studio.[9] In January 1947 Sabatini was reportedly working on the script.[10]

CastingEdit

In October 1946 Box said he wanted a young, virile actor to play the lead.[11] Stewart Granger was originally mentioned. In January 1947 Arturo de Córdova was announced as star.[12]

In August 1947 Sydney Box arrived in Hollywood to sign a star. He met with James Mason.[13] Then in September he announced he had signed Fredric March and Florence Eldridge to play the leads.[14]

"It's a great part", said March.[15]

ShootingEdit

March arrived in England in April 1948 for what was meant to be a five-month shoot.[16] Studio filming took place at Pinewood and there was location filming in Barbados.[17] March had recently had an operation and suffered a relapse while in London.[18]

Two ships, replicas of the Nina and Santa Maria were built especially for the film and in April 1948 they were shipped from Spain to London.[19]

Shooting was often difficult. The replica of the Santa Maria broke its moorings during a squall in the West Indies and drifted for two nights and a day with people on board before it was rescued. Then a fire broke out and the ship was burnt. It had to be rebuilt at a cost of £100,000 because scenes set on it had yet to be shot.[20] March collapsed one day due to heatstroke.[21]

ReshootsEdit

A new subplot was added towards the end of shooting involving the romance between Columbus and the sister (Kathleen Ryan) of his lieutenant (Derek Bond).[22][23]

March was reportedly very disappointed with the final film.[24]

The Francoist Spanish government considered the portrait of Columbus to be unflattering. In response the leading Spanish studio CIFESA produced Dawn of America (1951), which portrayed Columbus as a more daring figure.

ReceptionEdit

CriticalEdit

The New York Times called it "largely an uninspired succession of legendary but lifeless episodes."[25]

Box OfficeEdit

In April 1949 J. Arthur Rank told Hedda Hopper he thought the film would be his most successful of 1949.[26] However the film failed to recoup its enormous cost at the box office.[3]

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Some versions of the film were cut to 95 minutes. Spicer p.128
  2. ^ Geoffrey Macnab, J. Arthur Rank and the British Film Industry, London, Routledge (1993) p183
  3. ^ a b c Andrew Spicer (2006). Sydney Box. Manchester Uni Press. p. 211. ISBN 9780719059995.
  4. ^ "Margaret [?]ylwards BRITISH FILMS". The Sun (2411). Sydney. 26 June 1949. p. 31. Retrieved 14 September 2017 – via National Library of Australia.
  5. ^ Spicer p.127-128
  6. ^ "FILM WORLD". The West Australian. 62 (18, 785). Western Australia. 27 September 1946. p. 17. Retrieved 14 September 2017 – via National Library of Australia.
  7. ^ "COLUMBUS IN A NEW BATTLE OF BRITAIN". Townsville Daily Bulletin. Qld. 7 October 1946. p. 6. Retrieved 13 July 2012 – via National Library of Australia.
  8. ^ A.H. WEILER (22 September 1946). "RANDOM NOTES ABOUT FILMS: Hollywood and England Discover Columbus--New Theatre". New York Times. p. X3.
  9. ^ Our London Film Critic (13 January 1947). "FILMS FOR 1947: Novels Featured in New Programmes SCOTTISH SUBJECTS". The Scotsman. Edinburgh, Scotland. p. 6.
  10. ^ "Top Ranking Film Star Sought For Role Of Columbus". The Kyogle Examiner. 45 (3389). New South Wales, Australia. 17 January 1947. p. 4. Retrieved 14 September 2017 – via National Library of Australia.
  11. ^ "COLUMBUS IN A NEW BATTLE OF BRITAIN". Townsville Daily Bulletin. LXVII. Queensland, Australia. 7 October 1946. p. 6. Retrieved 14 September 2017 – via National Library of Australia.
  12. ^ "TALKING of TALKIES". Truth (2445). Brisbane. 2 February 1947. p. 42. Retrieved 14 September 2017 – via National Library of Australia.
  13. ^ Hopper, H. (13 August 1947). "Looking at hollywood". Chicago Daily Tribune. ProQuest 177401461.
  14. ^ "Latest Film News From Hollywood, London". The Sun (11, 740) (LATE FINAL EXTRA ed.). Sydney. 11 September 1947. p. 16. Retrieved 14 September 2017 – via National Library of Australia.
  15. ^ Gendall, Bruce (17 July 1948). "The BEST YEARS of YOUR LIFE: FREDRIC MARCH". Answers; London. 114 (2958). p. 7.
  16. ^ "Robt. Morley returns to film-making". The Sun (11, 936) (LATE FINAL EXTRA ed.). Sydney. 29 April 1948. p. 17. Retrieved 14 September 2017 – via National Library of Australia.
  17. ^ "SHADES OF COLUMBUS". Kalgoorlie Miner. 54 (14, 335). Western Australia. 17 July 1948. p. 7. Retrieved 14 September 2017 – via National Library of Australia.
  18. ^ "FREDRIC MARCH ILL IN LONDON; SUFFERS OPERATION RELAPSE". Chicago Daily Tribune. 26 April 1948. ProQuest 177562250.
  19. ^ C. A. L. (4 April 1948). "RANDOM NOTES ABOUT LONDON MOVIE STUDIOS". New York Times. ProQuest 108378542.
  20. ^ "Of local origin". New York Times. 24 July 1948.
  21. ^ "THE STARRY WAY". The Courier-Mail (3663). Brisbane. 21 August 1948. p. 2. Retrieved 14 September 2017 – via National Library of Australia.
  22. ^ "LATEST FILM NEWS FROM ABROAD". The Sun (12, 062) (LATE FINAL EXTRA ed.). Sydney. 23 September 1948. p. 17. Retrieved 14 September 2017 – via National Library of Australia.
  23. ^ "LATEST FILM NEWS FROM ABROAD". The Sun (LATE FINAL EXTRA ed.). New South Wales, Australia. 23 September 1948. p. 17. Retrieved 16 June 2020 – via Trove.
  24. ^ "March Disappointed". The Argus (31, 979). Melbourne. 1 March 1949. p. 3 (The Argus Super Comic). Retrieved 14 September 2017 – via National Library of Australia.
  25. ^ BOSLEY CROWTHER. (3 October 1949). "'Christopher Columbus,' With Fredric March and His Wife, Showing at the Victoria". New York Times. p. 33.
  26. ^ Hopper, H. (15 April 1949). "'Running of tide' now named to star lana". Los Angeles Times. ProQuest 165945096.

BibliographyEdit

  • Spicer, Andrew. British Film Makers: Sydney Box. Manchester University Press, 2006.

External linksEdit