Cham–Vietnamese War (982)

Champa–Dai Viet War of 982 or Cham–Vietnamese War of 982 was a military expedition launched by Vietnamese King Lê Hoàn of Đại Việt against King Jaya Paramesvaravarman I of Champa in 982. It resulted in the defeat of the Cham forces and the death of Paramesvaravarman I in battle. This marked the beginning of a southward Vietnamese advance against Champa. [1]

Champa–Đại Cồ Việt war
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Champa and Đại Việt on the world map
Date982
Location
Result Vietnamese victory
Belligerents
Champa Đại Việt
Commanders and leaders
Jaya Paramesvaravarman I   Lê Hoàn
Strength
Unknown Unknown

BackgroundEdit

Since the end of the 9th century, Vietnamese chieftains and warlords had ruled Northern Vietnam. In 939, Ngô Quyền abolished the military governor, proclaimed himself King, and declared Vietnamese independence from China.[2][3] However, the Ngô family's reign was short-lived. At the end of the civil war (965-968 CE), Đinh Bộ Lĩnh, the Duke of Hoa Lư, defeated all the warlords and established the kingdom of Đại Cồ Việt (classical Vietnam). During the civil war, Ngô Nhật Khánh, a grandson of Ngô Quyền, was defeated by Đinh Bộ Lĩnh in 967. After the war, the new king Đinh Bộ Lĩnh married his daughter off to Khánh, who subsequently took his new wife and his children to Champa. Upon arriving at a seaport on the southern border, out of his deep hatred for Đinh Bộ Lĩnh, Khánh drew a dagger from his waist and slashed his wife’s face, saying, "Your father coerced and ravished my mother and younger sister; how can I, just because of you, forget your father’s cruelty? You go back; I will go a different way to look for those who can help me." Due to this action, Đại Cồ Việt exiled Khánh to Champa and he was not allowed to return.[4]

In October 979, King Đinh Bộ Lĩnh and Prince Đinh Liễn of Dai Viet were killed by a eunuch named Đỗ Thích while they were sleeping in the courtyard of the palace. Their deaths resulted in a state of unrest throughout Dai Viet. After hearing the news, Ngô Nhật Khánh, who was still living out his exile in Champa, encouraged the Cham king Jaya Paramesvaravarman I to invade Đại Việt. The naval invasion was halted due to a typhoon.[5][6] In the following years, the new Vietnamese ruler, Lê Hoàn, sent emissaries to Champa to announce his accession to the throne.[7] However, Jaya Paramesvaravarman I detained them. Lê Hoàn used this action as a pretext for a retaliatory expedition to Champa. [8]

CourseEdit

In 982, Lê Hoàn commanded the army and stormed the Cham capital of Indrapura (modern-day Quảng Nam). Jaya Paramesvaravarman I was killed while the invading force sacked Indrapura. They carried off gold, silver, other precious objects, women from the king's entourage, and even an Indian Buddhist monk, before returning to the north.[9][8][10] The capital destroyed,[11] Paramesvaravarman's successor, Jaya Indravarman IV, took refuge in the south while appealing in vain for Chinese help.[7][12]

"...At the time when I was in India, the king of the government of al-Sanf[a] was named "Lajin." The Najrani (Nestorian) monk told me that the current king is known as King Luqin[b] (Annam), who desired al-Sanf. He devastated it and became ruler over its people."[16]

— Quote of Abu Dulaf in Ibn al-Nadim's Al-Fihrist, 378 H (~987 AD)

AftermathEdit

In 983, after the war had devastated northern Champa, Lưu Kế Tông, a Vietnamese military officer, took advantage of the disruptions and seized power in Indrapura.[12][17] In the same year, he successfully resisted Lê Hoàn's attempt to remove him from power.[18] In 986, Indravarman IV died and Lưu Kế Tông proclaimed himself King of Champa.[7] Following the usurpation of Lưu Kế Tông, many Chams and Muslims fled to Song China, particularly the Hainan and Guangzhou regions, to seek refuge.[12][17] Following the death of Lưu Kế Tông in 989, the native Cham king Jaya Harivarman II was crowned. When the Vietnamese sent Cham prisoners to China, the Chinese sent them back to Champa in 992.[12] The Chams then renewed their attacks against the kingdom of Đại Việt in 995 and 997.[18] In 1000, the Cham finally abandoned Indrapura and moved to the new capital of Vijaya.[18][19]

NotesEdit

  1. ^ Champa was known as Sanf in Arabic.[13]
  2. ^ Luqin was an old Muslim name which referred to Annam, derived from Long Biên.[14][15]

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Walker 2012, p. 212.
  2. ^ Walker 2012, p. 210.
  3. ^ Coedes 2015, p. 80.
  4. ^ Kiernan 2019, p. 142.
  5. ^ Kiernan 2019, p. 144.
  6. ^ Maspero 2002, p. 56.
  7. ^ a b c Hall 1981, p. 203.
  8. ^ a b Kiernan 2019, p. 146.
  9. ^ Maspero 2002, p. 57.
  10. ^ Hall 1981, p. 216.
  11. ^ Coedes 2015, p. 81.
  12. ^ a b c d Coedès 1968, p. 125.
  13. ^ Kauz 2010, p. 182.
  14. ^ Chaffee 2018, p. 28.
  15. ^ Elverskog 2011, p. 69.
  16. ^ Elverskog 2011, p. 68.
  17. ^ a b Chaffee 2018, p. 60.
  18. ^ a b c Coedès 2015, p. 82.
  19. ^ Hall 1981, p. 204.

BibliographyEdit

  • Chaffee, John W. (2018), The Muslim Merchants of Premodern China: The History of a Maritime Asian Trade Diaspora, 750-1400, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-1108640091
  • Coedès, George (1968), Vella, Walter F. (ed.), The Indianized States of Southeast Asia, University of Hawaii Press., ISBN 978-0-8248-0368-1
  • Coedes, George (2015). The Making of South East Asia (RLE Modern East and South East Asia). Taylor & Francis. ISBN 9781317450955.
  • Elverskog, Johan (2011), Buddhism and Islam on the Silk Road, University of Pennsylvania Press, ISBN 9780812205312
  • Hall, Daniel George Edward (1981), History of South East Asia, Macmillan Education, Limited, ISBN 978-1-349-16521-6
  • Kauz, Ralph (2010), Aspects of the Maritime Silk Road: From the Persian Gulf to the East China Sea, Isd, ISBN 3447061030
  • Kiernan, Ben (2019). Việt Nam: a history from earliest time to the present. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-190-05379-6.
  • Maspero, Georges (2002), The Champa Kingdom, White Lotus Co., Ltd, ISBN 978-9747534993
  • Walker, Hugh Dyson (2012), East Asia: A New History, ISBN 1477265163