Central Committee elected by the 17th Congress of the All-Union Communist Party (Bolsheviks)

The Central Committee (CC) composition was elected at the 17th Congress, and sat from 10 February 1934 until 22 March 1939. Its 1st Plenary Session renewed the composition of the Politburo, Secretariat and the Orgburo of the All-Union Communist Party (Bolsheviks). The 17th Congress was labelled the "Congress of Victors" to mark the success of the first five-year plan and the collectivization of agriculture.[1] The CC 1st Plenary Session elected Joseph Stalin General Secretary of the Central Committee, and Lazar Kaganovich continued to serve as Stalin's deputy, an informal post referred to by Sovietologists as Second Secretary, and was empowered to manage party business and sign Politburo resolutions when Stalin was away from Moscow.[2]

Central Committee elected
by the 17th Congress
← 16th
18th →
10 February 1934 – 22 March 1939
Officers
General SecretaryJoseph Stalin
Second SecretaryLazar Kaganovich (1934–1935)
Inner-groupsPolitburo: 12 full & 5 candidates
Secretariat: 6 members
Orgburo: 12 full & 2 candidates
Apparatus
No. of departments12

This Central Committee composition saw the de-formalisation of politics; for example, the number of Politburo meetings was reduced to 16 for the year of 1934.[3] Politburo decisions were made either by polling the members or informal meeting between Stalin and other Politburo members.[3] According to Ukrainian historian Oleg Khlevniuk the "procedures followed by the Politburo became increasingly simplified as it was transformed from a collective body into an appendage of a decision-making system that rested on Stalin's sole authority.[4] According to Vadim Rogovin, "During the period of the Great Purge, the rights of the Central Committee and its members were restricted even more", noting that CC members lost the right to attend Politburo sessions or being informed on the decisions taken by the Politburo, Secretariat or the Orgburo.[5] When looking back, Nikita Khrushchev lamented the situation; "by 1938, the earlier democracy in the Central Committee had already been greatly undermined. For instance, as a candidate member of the Politburo, I did not receive materials of our sessions. ... I received only the material which Stalin sent to me on his own orders."[6]

Of the 139 full members and candidate members elected at the 17th Party Congress, 98 people were killed in the period 1936–1940.[7] Of these 44 (out of 71) were full members, while 55 (out of 68) were candidate members.[7] Of those arrested, over 80 percent of them were below the age of 50.[7] When the 18th Party Congress convened in 1939, 31 individuals remained in the Central Committee.[7] Of these, seven were not reelected, and of them five were pensioned or relieved of leading offices (Grigory Petrovsky, Gleb Krzhizhanovsky, Grigory Broydo, Mikhail Chuvyrin and Isaak Schwartz) while Tikhon Yurkin and Avraami Zavenyagin were reelected to the CC at the 19th Party Congress (in 1952) and the 20th Party Congress (in 1956) respectively.[7] Of the 24 reelected at the 18th Party Congress, four would be subject to violent repression (Mikhail Kaganovich in 1941, Solomon Lozovsky in 1952, Lavrentiy Beria in 1953 and Mir Jafar Baghirov in 1956).[8] Klavdiya Nikolayeva became the only CC member who had previously been active in intra-party opposition to survive the purge.[9]

Life durations of members of Central Committee chosen on the 17th Congress of the All-Union Communist Party (Bolsheviks)

When asked in an interview how the Central Committee approved its own destruction (the decision to expel a member from the CC or for a member to be arrested by the authorities had to be approved by the CC itself through a plenary session), Vyacheslav Molotov replied; "In the first place, on democratic centralism—Listen, it did not happen that a minority expelled a majority. It happened gradually. Seventy expelled 10–15 people, then 60 expelled another 15. All in line with majority and minority. ... Essentially, it happened that a minority of the composition of the TsK [CC] remained of this majority, but without formal violation [of democratic centralism]."[10] According to J. Arch Getty and Oleg Naumov the CC "In the name of party unity and with a desperate feeling of corporate self-preservation, the nomenklatura committed suicide."[11] However, there were some within the CC who breached party tradition and spoke against the purges, such as Grigory Kaminsky and Osip Piatnitsky for example.[12]

PlenumsEdit

The CC was not a permanent institution. The CC was convened for fourteen plenary sessions between the 17th Congress and the 18th Congress. When the CC was not in session, decision-making powers were transferred to inner bodies of the CC itself; the Politburo, Secretariat and Orgburo (none of these bodies were permanent either, but convened to decide on crucial matters).[13]

Plenary sessions of the Central Committee
Plenum Date Length
1st Plenary Session 10 February 1934 1 day
2nd Plenary Session 29 June – 1 July 1934 3 days
3rd Plenary Session 25–28 November 1934 4 days
4th Plenary Session 1 February 1935 1 day
5th Plenary Session 28 February 1935 1 day
6th Plenary Session 5–7 June 1935 3 days
7th Plenary Session 21–25 December 1935 5 days
8th Plenary Session 1–4 June 1936 4 days
9th Plenary Session 4, 7 July 1936 2 days
10th Plenary Session 23 February – 5 March 1937 12 days
11th Plenary Session 26–29 June 1937 4 days
12th Plenary Session 11–12 October 1937 2 days
13th Plenary Session 11, 14, 18, 20 January 1938 4 days
14th Plenary Session 9–11 January 1938 3 days

ApparatusEdit

Individuals employed by Central Committee's bureaus, departments and newspapers made up the apparatus between the 17th Congress and the 18th Congress.[14] The bureaus and departments were supervised by the Secretariat, and each secretary (member of the Secretariat) supervised a specific department.[15] The leaders of departments were officially referred to as Heads, while the titles of bureau leaders varied between chairman, first secretary and secretary.[16]

Central Committee Apparatus of the 17th Congress of the All-Union Communist Party (Bolsheviks)
Institution Leader Cyrillic Took office Left office Length of tenure Ethnicity Gender
Administrator of Affairs Timofey Samsonov Тимофей Самсонов 10 February 1934 1935 1 year and 111 days Russian Male
Ivan Lychov Иван Лычев 1935 May 1938 3 years and 120 days Russian Male
Dmitry Krupin Дмитрий Крупин May 1938 22 March 1939 325 days Russian Male
Agriculture Department Andrei Zhdanov Андрей Жданов 3 March 1934 10 April 1934 38 days Russian Male
Yakov Yakovlev Я́ков Я́ковлев 10 April 1934 1936 2 years and 52 days Ukrainian Male
Bolshevik Aleksei Stetskii Алексе́й Сте́цкий 10 February 1934 26 April 1938 4 years and 55 days Ukrainian Male
Cultural and Educational Work Department Alexander Shcherbakov Алекса́ндр Щербако́в 13 May 1935 1936 1 year and 19 days Russian Male
Aleksey Angarov Алексей Ангаров 1936 July 1937 1 year and 30 days Russian Male
Industrial Department Nikolai Yezhov Николай Ежов 3 March 1934 3 March 1935 1 year and 0 days Russian Male
Andrey Andreyev Андрей Андреев 3 March 1935 13 May 1937 2 years and 71 days Russian Male
Mikhail Tselishev Михаил Целищев 13 May 1937 September 1937 111 days Russian Male
Leninist Culture and Propaganda Department Aleksei Stetskii Алексей Стецкий 10 February 1934 13 May 1935 1 year and 92 days Russian Male
Planning, Finance and Trade Department Andrei Zhdanov Андрей Жданов 10 April 1934 1934 235 days Russian Male
Karl Bauman Карл Бауман 1934 20 January 1938 4 years and 19 days Latvian Male
Political-Administrative Department Yakov Brezanovsky Яков Брезановский 10 March 1934 February 1935 328 days Polish Male
Osip Piatnitsky Осип Пятницкий 19 August 1935 7 July 1937 1 year and 322 days Russian Male
Pravda Lev Mekhlis Лев Мехлис 10 February 1934 4 September 1937 3 years and 206 days Ukrainian Male
Press and Publications Department Boris Tal Борис Таль 13 May 1935 4 September 1937 2 years and 114 days Azerbaijani Male
Lev Mekhlis Лев Мехлис 4 September 1937 2 January 1938 120 days Ukrainian Male
Alexander Niktin Александр Никитин 2 January 1938 21 November 1938 323 days Russian Male
Propaganda Department Aleksei Stetskii Алексей Стецкий 13 May 1935 26 April 1938 2 years and 348 days Russian Male
Andrei Zhdanov Андрей Жданов 21 November 1938 22 March 1939 121 days Russian Male
Science and Scientific-technological Discoveries Department Karl Bauman Карл Бауман 13 May 1935 14 April 1937 1 year and 336 days Latvian Male
School Department Boris Volin Борис Волин 13 May 1935 1936 1 year and 19 days Russian Male
Special Sector Alexander Poskrebyshev Александр Поскрёбышев 10 February 1934 22 March 1939 5 years and 40 days Russian Male
Transportation Department Lazar Kaganovich Лазарь Каганович 10 March 1934 9 July 1935 1 year and 121 days Russian Male
Nikolai Zimin Николай Зимин 9 July 1935 10 September 1938 3 years and 63 days Russian Male

CompositionEdit

MembersEdit

Members of the Central Committee of the 17th Congress of the All-Union Communist Party (Bolsheviks)
Name Cyrillic 16th CC 18th CC Birth Death PM Ethnicity Gender Portrait
Pyotr Alexeyev Пётр Алексеев Old Removed 1877 1936 1914 Russian Male
Andrey Andreyev Андрей Андреев Old Reelected 1895 1971 1914 Russian Male  
Nikolay Antipov Николай Антипов Old Removed 1894 1938 1912 Russian Male  
Aleksei Badayev Алексей Бадаев Old Reelected 1883 1951 1904 Russian Male  
Mir Jafar Baghirov Мир Багиров Promoted Reelected 1896 1956 1917 Azerbaijani Male  
Vsevolod Balitsky Всеволод Балицкий New Removed 1892 1937 1915 Ukrainian Male  
Karl Bauman Карл Бауман Old Removed 1892 1937 1907 Latvian Male
Lavrentiy Beria Лавре́нтий Бе́рия New Reelected 1899 1953 1917 Georgian Male  
Vasily Blyukher Василий Блюхер Promoted Arrested 1899 1938 1916 Russian Male  
Andrei Bubnov Андрей Бубнов Old Removed 1884 1938 1903 Russian Male  
Nikolai Bulganin Николай Булганин Promoted Reelected 1895 1975 1917 Russian Male  
Anton Bulin Антон Булин Promoted Removed 1894 1938 1914 Russian Male
Mikhail Chernov Михаил Чернов New Removed 1891 1938 1920 Ukrainian Male  
Vlas Chubar Влас Чубар Old Arrested 1891 1939 1907 Ukrainian Male  
Mikhail Chudov Михаил Чудов Old Removed 1893 1937 1913 Russian Male
Mikhail Chuvyrin Михаил Чувырин Old Not 1883 1947 1903 Russian Male
Robert Eikhe Роберт Эйхе Old Arrested 1890 1940 1905 Latvian Male  
Avel Enukidze А́вель Енуки́дзе Old Removed 1877 1937 1898 Georgian Male
Yan Gamarnik Ян Гамарник Old Suicide 1894 1937 1916 Ukrainian Male
Vladimir Ivanov Владимир Иванов Candidate Removed 1893 1938 1915 Russian Male  
Akmal Ikramov Акмаль Икрамов Candidate Removed 1898 1938 1918 Uzbek Male  
Uraz Isayev Ураз Исаев Candidate Removed 1899 1938 1920 Kazakh Male
Ivan Kabakov Иван Кабаков Old Removed 1891 1937 1914 Russian Male
Lazar Kaganovich Лазарь Каганович Old Reelected 1893 1991 1911 Russian Male  
Mikhail Kaganovich Михаил Каганович New Reelected 1888 1941 1905 Russian Male  
Mikhail Kalinin Михаил Калинин Old Reelected 1875 1946 1898 Russian Male  
Lavrentiy Kartvelishvili Лаврентий Картвелишвили Candidate Removed 1890 1938 1910 Georgian Male  
Mendel Khatayevich Мендель Хатаевич Old Removed 1893 1937 1913 Russian Male  
Nikita Khrushchev Никита Хрущёв New Reelected 1894 1971 1918 Russian Male  
Sergey Kirov Серге́й Ки́ров Old Murder 1886 1934 1904 Russian Male  
Vilhelm Knorin Вильгельм Кнорин Old Removed 1890 1938 1910 Latvian Male  
Ivan Kodatsky Иван Кодацкий Old Removed 1893 1937 1914 Ukrainian Male  
Alexander Kosarev Александр Косарев Candidate Arrested 1903 1939 1919 Russian Male  
Joseph Kosior Иосиф Косиор Old Died 1889 1937 1908 Polish Male  
Stanislav Kosior Станислав Косиор Old Arrested 1889 1939 1907 Polish Male  
Nadezhda Krupskaya Наде́жда Кру́пская Old Died 1869 1939 1898 Russian Female  
Alexander Krinitsky Александр Криницкий Candidate Removed 1894 1937 1915 Russian Male  
Gleb Krzhizhanovsky Глеб Кржижано́вский Old Not 1872 1959 1898 Russian Male  
Mikhail Kulkov Михаил Кульков Promoted Removed 1891 1939 1915 Russian Male
Valerian Kuybyshev Валериан Куйбышев Old Died 1888 1935 1904 Russian Male  
Dmitry Lebed Дмитрий Лебедь Old Removed 1893 1937 1904 Russian Male  
Maxim Litvinov Макси́м Литви́нов New Reelected 1876 1951 1898 Lithuanian Male  
Semyon Lobov Семён Лобов Old Removed 1888 1937 1913 Russian Male
Solomon Lozovsky Соломон Лозовский Promoted Reelected 1892 1952 1901 Russian Male  
Isidor Lyubimov Исидор Любимов Old Removed 1882 1937 1902 Russian Male
Ivan Makarov Иван Макаров Promoted Candidate 1888 1949 1905 Russian Male
Dmitry Manuilsky Дмитро Мануїльський Old Reelected 1883 1959 1903 Ukrainian Male  
Lev Mekhlis Лев Ме́хлис Promoted Reelected 1889 1953 1918 Ukrainian Male  
Valery Mezhlauk Валерий Межлаук Candidate Removed 1893 1938 1917 Latvian Male  
Mikhail Mikhailov Михаил Михайлов Promoted Removed 1902 1938 1919 Russian Male
Anastas Mikoyan Анаста́с Микоя́н Old Reelected 1895 1978 1915 Armenian Male  
Levon Mirzoyan Левон Мирзоян New Arrested 1887 1939 1917 Armenian Male  
Vyacheslav Molotov Вячеслав Молотов Old Reelected 1890 1986 1906 Russian Male  
Klavdiya Nikolayeva Клавдия Николаева New Reelected 1893 1944 1909 Russian Female  
Ivan Nosov Иван Носов Old Removed 1888 1937 1905 Russian Male
Grigol Ordzhonikidze Григо́рий Орджоники́дзе New Suicide 1886 1937 1903 Georgian Male  
Nikolay Pakhomov Николай Пахомов Candidate Removed 1890 1938 1912 Russian Male  
Grigory Petrovsky Григо́рій Петро́вський Old Not 1878 1958 1898 Ukrainian Male  
Osip Piatnitsky Осип Пятницкий Old Removed 1882 1938 1898 Russian Male  
Pavel Postyshev Григо́рій Петро́вський Old Arrested 1887 1939 1904 Russian Male  
Eduard Pramnek Эдуард Прамнэк Promoted Removed 1899 1938 1917 Lithuanian Male  
Georgy Pyatakov Георгий Пятаков Old Arrested 1890 1937 1910 Russian Male  
Mikhail Razumov Михаил Разумов New Removed 1894 1937 1913 Ukrainian Male
Jānis Rudzutaks Ян Рудзутак Old Removed 1887 1938 1905 Latvian Male  
Moisei Rukhimovich Моисей Рухимович Old Removed 1889 1938 1913 Russian Male  
Ivan Rumyantsev Иван Румянцев Old Removed 1886 1937 1905 Russian Male  
Kuzma Ryndin Кузьма Рындин Old Removed 1893 1938 1915 Russian Male
Boris Sheboldaev Борис Шеболдаев Old Removed 1895 1937 1914 Russian Male  
Nikolai Shvernik Николай Шверник Old Reelected 1888 1970 1905 Russian Male  
Pyotr Smorodin Пётр Смородин Promoted Removed 1897 1938 1917 Russian Male  
Joseph Stalin Ио́сиф Ста́лин Old Reelected 1878 1953 1898 Georgian Male  
Aleksei Stetskii Алексей Стецкий Old Arrested 1896 1938 1915 Russian Male  
Daniil Sulimov Даниил Сулимов Old Removed 1890 1937 1905 Russian Male  
Aleksandr Ugarov Александр Угаров Promoted Removed 1900 1939 1917 Russian Male  
Konstantin Ukhanov Константин Уханов Old Removed 1891 1937 1907 Russian Male  
Iosif Vareikis Иосиф Варейкис Old Removed 1894 1938 1913 Lithuanian Male
Kliment Voroshilov Климент Ворошилов Old Reelected 1881 1969 1903 Russian Male  
Yakov Yakovlev Я́ков Я́ковлев Old Removed 1896 1938 1913 Ukrainian Male  
Genrikh Yagoda Генрих Ягода Candidate Removed 1891 1938 1907 Russian Male  
Iona Yakir Иона Якир Candidate Removed 1896 1937 1917 Moldovan Male  
Yefim Yevdokimov Ефи́м Евдоки́мов New Arrested 1891 1940 1918 Russian Male  
Nikolai Yezhov Николай Ежов New Not 1895 1940 1917 Russian Male  
Isaak Zelensky Исаак Зеленский Old Removed 1890 1937 1906 Russian Male  
Andrei Zhdanov Андрей Жданов Old Reelected 1896 1948 1915 Russian Male  
Ivan Zhukov Иван Жуков Old Removed 1889 1937 1909 Russian Male

CandidatesEdit

Candidate Members of the Central Committee of the 17th Congress of the All-Union Communist Party (Bolsheviks)
Name Cyrillic 16th CC 18th CC Birth Death PM Ethnicity Gender Portrait
Mir Jafar Baghirov Мир Багиров New Promoted 1896 1956 1917 Azerbaijani Male  
Georgy Blagonravov Георгий Благонравов New Removed 1896 1938 1917 Russian Male  
Vasily Blyukher Георгий Благонравов New Promoted 1890 1938 1916 Russian Male  
Grigory Broydo Григорий Бройдо New Not 1883 1956 1918 Russian Male  
Semyon Budyonny Семён Будённый New Member 1883 1973 1919 Russian Male  
Nikolai Bukharin Никола́й Буха́рин Member Removed 1888 1938 1906 Russian Male  
Nikolai Bulganin Николай Булганин New Promoted 1895 1975 1917 Russian Male  
Anton Bulin Антон Булин New Promoted 1894 1938 1914 Russian Male
Yavlov Bykin Яков Быкин New Removed 1888 1938 1912 Russian Male  
Nikolai Demchenko Николай Демченко New Removed 1896 1937 1916 Ukrainian Male
Terenty Deribas Терентий Дерибас New Removed 1896 1937 1903 Russian Male  
Shalva Eliava Шалва Элиава Candidate Removed 1883 1937 1904 Georgian Male  
Nikolai Filatov Николай Филатов New Removed 1891 1939 1912 Russian Male
Nikolai Gikalo Николай Гикало New Removed 1897 1938 1917 Ukrainian Male  
Nikolay Goloded Николай Голодед Candidate Removed 1894 1937 19181 Belarusian Male  
Fyodor Gryadinsky Фёдор Грядинский Candidate Removed 1893 1938 1912 Russian Male  
Hryhoriy Hrynko Григорий Гринько New Removed 1890 1938 1919 Ukrainian Male  
Uraz Isayev Ураз Исаев Candidate Promoted 1899 1938 1920 Kazakh Male
Anna Kalgyna Анна Калыгина Candidate Removed 1895 1937 1915 Russian Female
Moisei Kalmanovich Моисей Калманович Candidate Removed 1888 1937 1917 Russian Male
Grigory Kaminsky Григорий Каминский Candidate Removed 1895 1938 1913 Ukrainian Male  
Nikolay Komarov Николай Комаров Member Removed 1886 1937 1909 Russian Male  
Nikolay Kubyak Николай Кубяк Member Removed 1881 1937 1898 Russian Male  
Mikhail Kulkov Михаил Кульков New Removed 1891 1939 1915 Russian Male
Vasily Kuritsyn Василий Курицын Candidate Removed 1892 1937 1917 Russian Male
Alfred Lepa Альфред Лепа New Removed 1892 1937 1914 Latvian Male
Solomon Lozovsky Соломон Лозовский Candidate Promoted 1892 1952 1901 Russian Male  
Panas Lyubchenko Соломон Лозовский New Suicide 1897 1937 1913 Ukrainian Male  
Ivan Makarov Иван Макаров New Promoted 1888 1949 1905 Russian Male
Lev Mekhlis Лев Мехлис New Promoted 1889 1953 1918 Ukrainian Male  
Mikhail Mikhailov Михаил Михайлов New Promoted 1902 1938 1919 Russian Male
Vasily Mikhailov Василий Михайлов Candidate Removed 1894 1937 1915 Russian Male  
Gazanfar Musabekov Газанфар Мусабеков Candidate Removed 1888 1938 1918 Azerbaijani Male  
Valerian Osinsky Валериан Оболенский Candidate Removed 1887 1938 1907 Russian Male
Nikolay Pakhomov Николай Пахомов Candidate Promoted 1890 1938 1912 Russian Male  
Ivan Pavlunovsky Иван Павлуновский New Removed 1888 1937 1905 Russian Male
Vladimir Polonsky Владимир Полонский Candidate Removed 1893 1937 1912 Russian Male  
Nikolai Popov Николай Попов Candidate Removed 1891 1938 1906 Russian Male
Alexander Poskrebyshev Александр Поскрёбышев New Member 1891 1965 1917 Russian Male
Boris Pozern Борис Позерн Candidate Arrested 1882 1939 1902 Russian Male  
Eduard Pramnek Эдуард Прамнэк New Promoted 1899 1938 1917 Latvian Male  
Vladimir Ptukha Владимир Птуха Candidate Removed 1894 1938 1917 Ukrainian Male  
Arkady Rosengolts Аркадий Розенгольц New Removed 1889 1938 1905 Belarusian Male  
Alexei Rykov Алексей Рыков Member Removed 1881 1938 1898 Russian Male  
Sarkis Sarkisov Саркис Саркисов New Removed 1898 1938 1917 Armenian Male  
Isaak Schwartz Исаак Шварц Candidate Not 1879 1951 1899 Ukrainian Male  
Alexei Sedelnikov Алексей Седельников Candidate Removed 1894 1938 1914 Russian Male
Boris Semenov Борис Семёнов Candidate Removed 1890 1937 1907 Russian Male
Alexander Serebrovsky Александр Серебровский Candidate Removed 1884 1938 1903 Russian Male  
Aleksandr Shteyngart Александр Штейнгарт New Died 1887 1934 1913 Ukrainian Male
Vladimir Shubrikov Владимир Шубриков New Removed 1895 1937 1917 Russian Male
Pyotr Smorodin Пётр Смородин Candidate Promoted 1897 1939 1917 Russian Male  
Grigori Sokolnikov Григорий Сокольников Candidate Arrested 1888 1939 1905 Ukrainian Male  
Konstantin Strievsky Константин Стриевский Member Removed 1885 1938 1902 Belarusian Male
Pyotr Struppe Пётр Струппе New Removed 1889 1937 1907 Russian Male  
Mikhail Tomsky Михаил Томский Member Suicide 1880 1936 1904 Russian Male  
Ivan Tovstukha Иван Товстуха New Died 1889 1935 1913 Ukrainian Male  
Mikhail Tukhachevsky Михаи́л Тухаче́вский New Arrested 1893 1937 1918 Russian Male  
Ieronim Uborevich Иероним Уборевич Candidate Removed 1896 1937 1917 Lithuanian Male  
Aleksandr Ugarov Александр Угаров New Promoted 1900 1939 1917 Russian Male  
Józef Unszlicht Ио́сиф У́ншлихт Candidate Removed 1879 1938 1900 Polish Male  
Yevgeny Veger Евгений Вегер New Removed 1899 1937 1917 Russian Male
Alexander Yegorov Александр Егоров New Arrested 1883 1939 1918 Russian Male  
Gavrii Veynberg Гавриил Вейнберг Candidate Candidate 1891 1946 1906 Polish Male
Ivan Yeromin Иван Ерёмин New Removed 1895 1937 1917 Russian Male
Tikhon Yurkin Тихон Юркин Candidate Not 1898 1986 1915 Russian Male  
Avraami Zavenyagin Авраамий Завенягин New Not 1901 1956 1917 Russian Male  
Volodymyr Zatonsky Володи́мир Зато́нський New Removed 1888 1938 1917 Ukrainian Male  

ReferencesEdit

GeneralEdit

Plenary sessions, apparatus heads, ethnicity (by clicking on the individual names on "The Central Committee elected by the XVIIth Congress of the CPSU (b) 2/10/1934 members" reference), the Central Committee full- and candidate membership, Politburo membership, Secretariat membership and Orgburo membership were taken from these sources:

BibliographyEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ Khlevniuk 2009, p. 86.
  2. ^ Khlevniuk 2009, p. 94.
  3. ^ a b Khlevniuk 2009, p. 100.
  4. ^ Khlevniuk 2009, p. 101.
  5. ^ Rogovin 2009, p. 179.
  6. ^ Rogovin 2009, pp. 179–180.
  7. ^ a b c d e Rogovin 2009, p. 176.
  8. ^ Rogovin 2009, pp. 176–177.
  9. ^ Rogovin 2009, p. 177.
  10. ^ Getty & Naumov 2010, pp. 467–468.
  11. ^ Getty & Naumov 2010, pp. 468.
  12. ^ Getty & Naumov 2010, pp. 467.
  13. ^ Simons & White 1984, pp. 423–425.
  14. ^ Fainsod & Hough 1979, p. 410.
  15. ^ Fainsod & Hough 1979, pp. 410–411 & 417–419.
  16. ^ Fainsod & Hough 1979, pp. 417–419.